Brain cancer is an intracranial neoplasm that develops in any part of the brain and is manifested by the following clinical syndromes: mental changes, focal neurological symptoms, epileptic seizures and cerebral symptoms. The severity of each syndrome depends on the stage and size of the tumor.
Cancer 1 degree of a brain practically does not give out itself. The speed of symptom development depends on the type of tumor - glioblastoma, meningioma or astrocytoma - each develops in its own way.
The first signs are cerebral symptoms. These are non-specific signs by which it is impossible to determine the presence of cancer: cerebral symptoms manifested in stroke, encephalitis, influenza.
- Headache. A tumor is a bulk tumor. Increasing pressure inside the skull. This leads to hypertensive syndrome. Headache characteristics: aching, throbbing, strong. Cephalgia is difficult to eliminate with non-narcotic painkillers (Paracetamol, Ibuprofen, Diclofenac).
- Vomiting. It is not related to food intake, as it has a central mechanism. Because of the increased intracranial pressure, the emetic centers of the midbrain are irritated. Weak irritation is manifested by nausea, severe - by vomiting. Because of the high intracranial pressure, the patient may wrest from looking at food or water. The gag reflex also works when any object enters the mouth, especially at the root of the tongue.
- Dizziness. Hypertensive syndrome leads to pressure on the cerebellum. The activity of the vestibular system is disrupted, which causes dizziness, which is accompanied by involuntary eye movement (nystagmus).
Also, brain cancer in the early stages manifests with non-specific symptoms:
- sleep disturbance,
- loss of appetite
- emotional lability, irritability, flashes of aggression,
- absent-mindedness, loss of memory and working ability.
For such symptoms, brain cancer at an early stage cannot be determined without instrumental methods. Often the patient refers to poisoning, fatigue or stress.
Focal neurological symptoms, epileptic seizures and mental disorders at the initial stage almost do not appear, or appear occasionally.
It is possible to recognize the early stage with the help of neuroimaging - computer and magnetic resonance imaging. The images will show the focus.
When the patient learns the diagnosis, he will have the classic stages of dealing with stress:
- Stage of shock. The diagnosis of cancer introduces the patient into a stupor.
- Stage of denial. The patient is trying to oust the information from the consciousness as if it were a nightmare or a cruel joke.
- Stage of aggression. A person blames himself and others for his illness. Guilt is pushed out by aggression on oneself, relatives and friends.
- Stage of depression. Awareness of the reality of diagnosis and the inability to blame yourself or a loved one for the disease leads the patient into a state of depression.
- Stage of acceptance. The patient tolerates the “fate”, accepts the disease as the natural course of life.
The duration of each stage is determined by personal maturity, work with a psychotherapist and psychological support of loved ones. Relatives should be helped by the patient: the outcome of the cancer depends in part on this. The faster the patient goes to the stage of adoption, the easier it is for the patient to tolerate stages 2,3 and 4 of the cancer.
Tumor growth in the second stage is manifested by cerebral symptoms and focal neurological symptoms.
Focal deficiency symptoms are completely dependent on the location of the tumor. However, despite the location of the tumor, neurological symptoms are divided into the following groups:
- Impaired sensitivity. Appears when the cancer is localized mainly in the parietal region. The syndrome is manifested by a decrease in tactile, pain, or temperature perception. An interesting case: if the tumor is in the area of the right parietal lobe, the patient does not feel the scheme of the left side of the body.
- Memory impairment Occurs if the cancer is located in the limbic system or in the temporal cortex. Violated short-and long-term memory.
- Decreased muscle strength. Localization of a neoplasm determines the following types of muscular strength disorder: hemiplegia, monoplegia, diplegia or tetraplegia.
- Violation of perception and the formation of speech. Aphasia occurs if the cancer is localized in the upper part of the temporal cortex or lower frontal gyrus.
- Loss of writing, reading and arithmetic counting skills.
- Violation of vegetative regulation. Manifested by fluctuations in blood pressure, sweating, shortness of breath, dizziness.
The third stage is the smooth continuation of the second. The clinical picture is growing, the quality of life of the patient decreases. This forces him to turn to a neurologist or therapist. As before, the clinic consists of cerebral and focal neurological symptoms.
In the third stage, epileptic seizures may occur. This helps the doctor determine the diagnosis and refer the patient to a CT scan of the brain. If there are no epileptic seizures, the diagnosis is difficult.
The final stage of brain cancer is the manifesto of the clinical picture. It includes cerebral symptoms, focal neurological signs, epileptic seizures and mental disorders. Vomiting in brain cancer 4 degrees appears from a simple irritant - a look at food or drink.
Localization of a tumor in the temporal or occipital cortex causes hallucinations. Usually these are simple perversions of perception — photopsies or akoasms. The patient sees flashes of light or individual sounds resembling the sound of tree leaves or a motorcycle engine.
Localization of a tumor in the frontal lobe provokes changes in the personality and the emotional-volitional sphere. The intellect, memory decreases, the attention dissipates. Changes in the mental sphere depend on the hemisphere in which the tumor has grown.
If this is the left frontal lobe, predominantly psychotic disorders of the type of persecution, damage or jealousy arise. With the defeat of the right frontal lobe arises mainly apathy, emotional flattening, reduced motivation. Such patients do not want to do anything, they are not interested in the world around them, their former hobbies and hobbies are lost, the desire to heal is lost.
The terminal stage, in addition to psychotic and personality disorders, is accompanied by neurotic disorders. There is depression, anxiety, aggression, suicidal behavior.
Treatment of brain cancer stage 4 occurs in the hospice service. Hospice is a medical course that helps people who are terminally ill. The task of specialists is to ensure a quiet death for patients and minimize suffering through the introduction of narcotic analgesics.
In the hospice, the emphasis is on the patient – psychotherapist relationship. The task of the latter is to ensure patient acceptance of the disease and to help relatives survive the loss.
How many patients live with brain cancer? The prognosis depends on the stage at which the diagnosis is made. So, this tumor was diagnosed at stage 1-2, the average life expectancy of patients - 4-5 years. When diagnosed at stage 3-4 - 1-2 years.
The prognosis also depends on the type of tumor. In glioblastoma, the most aggressive form of brain neoplasm, the average life expectancy is from 6 months to 1.5 years.
How to die - death comes from several reasons:
- Cachexia. This is a strong depletion of the body, in which the adaptation and reserve resources are completely exhausted. The patient's weight is critically reduced, severe weakness and dehydration are observed. All physiological processes are extinguished.
- Dislocation syndrome. Due to mechanical pressure and intracranial hypertension, the brainstem is shifted. Sharp bias damages the brain stem, responsible for the respiratory act, heartbeat and vascular tone. At first, this manifests itself as a pathological type of Cheyne-Stokes or Biota, in which respiratory acts alternate with 30 second apnea. The defeat of the center that regulates cardiovascular activity is accompanied by a rhythm disturbance, a decrease in blood pressure. As a result, the blood is not first saturated with oxygen, carbon dioxide accumulates, and then ceases to swing through the vessels of the body.
Causes of brain cancer
The causes of brain tumors have not been studied enough - in 5-10% of the cancer is triggered by hereditary pathologies of genes, secondary tumors occur when metastasis spreads in cancer of other organs.
The following causes of brain cancer can be identified:
Genetic diseases like Gorlin syndrome, Bourneville disease, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, tuberculosis sclerosis, and disorders of the APC gene can cause brain cancer.
The weakened state of immunity, which can be observed after a transplant of organs with AIDS, increases the likelihood of cancer in the brain and other organs.
Brain cancer is more common in women than in men. The exception is meningiomas - neoplasms of the arachnoid membrane of the brain. Race also plays an important role - white people are more likely to suffer from the disease than members of other races.
Exposure to radiation and carcinogens also carries an oncogenic hazard and is a risk factor for the development of brain cancer. The risk group includes people involved in hazardous industries, for example, in the industrial plastics industry.
Brain cancer is more common in adults, the risk of malignant neoplasms increases with age, and the disease is more difficult to treat. Children also have a risk of developing cancer, but typical sites of tumor localization are different: for example, in adults the cancer more often affects the lining of the brain, whereas in younger patients the cerebellum or the brainstem suffers. In 10% of adult brain cancers, the tumor affects the pineal gland and the pituitary gland.
Secondary tumors are the result of other oncological processes in the body - metastases get inside the skull through the circulatory system and give rise to a malignant neoplasm in the brain. Such tumors are often found in breast cancer and other cancers.
The first signs of brain cancer
In tumors of the brain, the symptoms are of two types: focal and cerebral. Cerebral is characteristic of all cases of brain cancer, whereas focal depends on the location of the tumor.
Focal symptoms can be very diverse, their type and severity depend on the part of the brain that has affected the diseases and functions for which it is responsible - memory, oral and written speech, counting, etc.
Among the focal symptoms of brain cancer are distinguished:
Partial or complete impairment of mobility of certain parts of the body, impaired sensitivity of the extremities, distorted perception of temperature and other external factors,
Changes related to personality - the nature of the patient is changing, a person can become quick-tempered and irritable, or, on the contrary, too calm and indifferent to everything that had bothered him before. The lethargy, apathy, lightheadedness in making important decisions affecting life, impulsive actions - all this can be a sign of mental disorders arising from brain cancer.
Loss of control over bladder function, difficulty urinating.
All brain tumors are characterized by common symptoms associated with an increase in intracranial pressure, as well as the mechanical effect of the tumor on various centers of the brain:
Dizziness, loss of balance, the feeling that the earth is slipping from under your feet - occur spontaneously, are an important symptom that requires diagnostic research,
Pain in the head - often dull and arching, but may have a different character, usually occur in the morning before the first meal, as well as in the evening or after emotional stress, aggravated by physical exertion,
Vomiting - appears in the morning or uncontrollably occurs with a sudden change in the position of the head. May appear without nausea, not associated with meals. With intensive vomiting, there is a risk of dehydration of the body, because of which the patient is forced to take drugs that block the stimulation of the corresponding receptors.
Other symptoms of brain cancer
Symptoms of brain cancer, which appear already in the later stages:
Partial or complete loss of vision, "flies" before the eyes is a symptom triggered by the pressure of a tumor on the optic nerve, which, in the absence of timely treatment, can lead to its death. It will be impossible to restore sight.
Squeezing the auditory nerve by a tumor causes the patient to experience hearing loss.
Epileptic seizures occurring suddenly in young people are a dangerous sign that should be immediately referred to a doctor. Characterized by the second and later stages of brain cancer.
Hormonal disorders are often observed in adenomatous tumors of glandular tissue, which are capable of producing hormones. The symptomatology at the same time can be the most various, as well as at other diseases connected with disturbance of hormonal balance.
Brain trunk lesions are characterized by impaired respiratory function, swallowing, sense of smell, taste, and vision are distorted. For all the seriousness of the symptoms, which can significantly reduce the quality of life and make a person unworkable and substandard, brain damage can be minor and benign. But even small tumors in this area can lead to serious consequences, the displacement of brain structures, which is why there is a need for surgical intervention.
Tumors in the temporal area of the brain manifest themselves by visual and auditory hallucinations, tumors in the occipital region are characterized by impaired color perception.
Diagnosis of brain cancer
The types of diagnostics of brain cancer include:
Personal examination by a doctor. During the initial examination, the doctor asks the patient to perform a series of tasks that allow to determine the lack of coordination, tactile and motor functions: they touch their nose with their eyes closed, take several steps right after rotating around themselves. A neurologist checks the tendon reflex.
MRI with contrast is prescribed in the presence of abnormalities, which allows to detect brain cancer at an early stage, to determine the localization of the tumor and to develop an optimal treatment plan.
Puncture of brain tissue allows you to determine the presence of abnormal cells, the degree of tissue changes, to determine the stage of the oncological process. However, tissue biopsy is not always possible due to the inaccessible location of the tumor, so this analysis is most often carried out when a malignant neoplasm is removed.
Radiography - allows you to determine the presence and localization of the tumor on the blood vessels displayed in the picture, for which the patient is previously administered a contrast agent.Craniography allows to determine changes in the bone structure of the skull, abnormal layers of calcium, provoked by the oncological process.
After the diagnostic examination, the doctor makes an individual treatment regimen.
Stages of brain cancer
Due to the almost asymptomatic course of the disease, it is difficult to accurately determine the stage of cancer, especially since the transition from one stage to another occurs quickly and unexpectedly. Especially for cancers in the brainstem. Accurately determine the stage of the disease only after postmortem, therefore, the slightest manifestations of pathology should be treated carefully from the first days - in the final stages, the cancer is not amenable to surgical treatment, poorly responding to medications and other therapies.
Stage 1 brain cancer
In the first stage of cancer, a small number of cells are affected, and surgical treatment is most often successful with a minimal likelihood of recurrence. However, it is very difficult to detect oncogenesis at this stage - the symptoms are characteristic of a number of other diseases, therefore, cancer can only be detected with special diagnostics. The first stage of cancer is characterized by weakness and drowsiness, recurrent pain in the head and dizziness. With such symptoms, they rarely go to a doctor, as they are attributed to weakening of the immune system due to climate change or to chronic diseases.
Stage 2 brain cancer
The transition of the cancerous process to the second stage is accompanied by the growth of a tumor, which captures nearby tissues and begins to compress the brain centers. Dangerous symptoms are seizures and seizures. In addition, the patient may experience disorders of the digestive function - problems with bowel movements and periodic vomiting. At this stage, the tumor is still operable, but the chances of a complete cure are reduced.
Stage 3 brain cancer
The third stage of brain cancer is characterized by rapid tumor growth, malignant cell degeneration affects healthy tissues, which makes it almost impossible for a surgical removal of a tumor. However, surgical treatment can give good results if the tumor is located in the temporal lobe.
Symptoms of the third stage of brain cancer - the symptoms of the second stage increase, hearing, vision and speech impairments become more pronounced, the patient has problems with the selection, “remembering” the words, it is difficult for him to concentrate, attention is dissipated and memory is disturbed. The extremities are numb, there is tingling in them, the mobility of the arms and legs is disturbed. In the upright position and when walking, it becomes almost impossible to maintain balance due to the impaired function of the vestibular apparatus. A characteristic symptom for the third stage - horizontal nystagmus - the patient has running pupils, even if the head remains stationary, the patient does not notice this.
Stage 4 brain cancer
At the fourth stage of cancer, surgical treatment is not carried out, since the tumor affects the vital parts of the brain. Palliative techniques, radiation therapy, drug therapy aimed at reducing the suffering of the patient with the help of strong painkillers are used. The prognosis is disappointing, but much depends on the state of the patient’s immune system and his emotional state. Symptoms of brain cancer at this stage are associated with the loss of basic vital functions when the malignant process spreads to the corresponding parts of the brain. With low effectiveness of treatment, the patient falls into a coma, from which it no longer leaves.
How many live with brain cancer?
To predict the development of the disease and assess the health status of patients with brain cancer use the concept of "five-year survival." Evaluated people who have been diagnosed with the disease, regardless of the course of treatment that they receive. Some patients after successful therapy live longer than five years, others have to constantly undergo therapeutic procedures.
On average, the survival rate of patients with neoplasms in the brain is 35%. For malignant brain tumors, most of which are gliomas, the survival rate is about 5%.
Brain Cancer Treatment
Treatment of brain cancer requires the interaction of different specialists - an oncologist, therapist, neuropathologist, neurosurgeon, radiologist and rehabilitologist. Diagnosis of the disease usually begins with a visit to the general practitioner or neuropathologist, from where the patient is referred to other specialists for additional examination.
The further treatment plan depends on the patient's age (the treatment of cancer in the younger age group 0-19 years old, the middle and the older one differs). In addition, when drawing up a course of treatment, they take into account the general state of health of the patient, the type of tumor and its location.
Radiation therapy, radiotherapy, and surgery are used in the treatment of oncogenic brain tumors. The operation to remove a tumor is the most reliable method, but it is not always possible to perform it because of the inaccessible location of the tumor. Surgical intervention is rarely carried out at the third and fourth stages of cancer, as it entails great risks and does not give the desired result - at this stage of the development of the disease, the tumor affects vital parts of the brain, is deeply embedded in healthy tissues and its complete removal is impossible.
Surgical removal of a neoplasm is an effective method for treating brain cancer in its early stages, especially when it comes to benign tumors. Surgery in this case is different from abdominal operations, in which the surgeon can capture some of the surrounding tissue to prevent the spread of cancer.
During brain surgery, one needs to observe maximum accuracy - an extra millimeter of tissue damaged during surgical procedures can cost a person a vital function. That is why in the terminal stages of cancer, surgical treatment is ineffective - it is impossible to completely remove the tumor, the pathological process spreads further. Palliative techniques can reduce the pressure that a tumor has on neighboring areas, while drug treatment, radiotherapy and chemotherapy slow down the growth of the neoplasm.
In the first and second stage of cancer, when a benign tumor is removed, the symptoms of the disease are completely eliminated. Therefore, with timely diagnosis, patient projections are favorable. In case of inaccessible location of the tumor, surgery requires additional research to accurately determine the location of the tumor. A doctor performs a tissue biopsy to classify the tumor and determine the stage of the cancer.
To reduce tissue damage that may occur during the operation, apply modern techniques - stereostatic radiosurgery. This is a surgical operation during which high-precision delivery of gamma-ray radiation or X-ray irradiation at high doses is provided in order to destroy the tumor. At the same time, healthy tissues are minimally affected or remain intact. The possibility of applying the technique depends on the location and size of the tumor. Such treatment is the least traumatic for the patient, reduces the rehabilitation period and minimizes the risk of complications after surgery.
Conservative or drug therapy is carried out before the operation and includes:
Anticonvulsants - reduce symptoms of the second and later stages of cancer, reduces the likelihood of an epileptic seizure,
Steroid anti-inflammatory drugs of this group relieve swelling of tumor tissues, which reduces the mechanical pressure on healthy areas, a common remedy is dexamethasone,
In order to reduce intracranial pressure, a shunting operation may be necessary, the purpose of which is to remove the excess cerebrospinal fluid, the discharge of which is hampered due to compression of the CSF by the tumor. The withdrawal of fluid through the catheter in the process of ventriculo-peritoneal shunting is connected through the plastic tube of the lateral ventricle to the abdominal cavity.
Radiotherapy of cancer tumors is used in two cases: if surgery is contraindicated for a patient for health reasons or after removal of the tumor to prevent relapse. Surgical removal of a tumor is ineffective in the advanced stages of brain cancer, then radiation therapy is used as the main treatment method. The presence of concomitant chronic diseases, pathologies of the cardiovascular system may be a contraindication for surgical intervention. In other cases, radiation therapy can be used to destroy abnormal cells that can trigger a cancer process after the tumor has been surgically removed.
The specialist prescribes the dose of radiation individually, the exposure is carried out locally to minimize damage to the tissues adjacent to the tumor. For radiotherapy, it is important to consider the type of tumor, its location and the size of the tumor. Two methods of radiation therapy are applied:
Brachytherapy is performed during inpatient treatment, a radioactive substance is injected into the tissue of the tumor, which destroys it from the inside. The dose of injected grain is calculated in such a way that the tumor is destroyed, but the healthy tissues remain intact.
External radiation therapy is carried out with a course of several weeks, during which the patient is irradiated with high doses of radiation for several minutes. Sessions are held five days a week, you can only visit the hospital at the appointed time, then the patient goes home.
Chemotherapy is not used as the primary method of treating cancer due to the fact that its impact not only affects the tissues of the tumor, but affects the body as a whole. The treatment regimen is a doctor, including drugs of a certain group in it - antimetabolites, drugs of the alkylating group, synthetic antibiotics, etc. Treatment is carried out in a course of several cycles, between which it is necessary to make pauses. The drugs are taken orally or injected or through a liquor shunt. After three or four cycles, they take a break to evaluate the effectiveness of the therapy.
The danger of chemotherapy lies in its negative impact on the blood-forming organs and the epithelium of the digestive tract.
Endoscopic surgical intervention is less traumatic than traditional methods of neurosurgery, as it is carried out using special equipment without wide incisions. In the course of a conventional operation on the brain, access is carried out by trepanning, during which the cranium is opened, which further injures the patient, extending the period of the rehabilitation period. Endoscopic techniques minimize damage to the nerves and the smallest blood vessels, which is especially important when working with brain tissues. Thus, endoscopic operations are used to treat hydrocephalus in children, caused by stagnation of fluid in the ventricles of the brain, such an operation is called ventruloscopy. Pituitary adenoma can also be removed by endoscopic methods, through the introduction of endoscopic instruments through the nose - transnasal endoscopy.
Endoscopic surgery is also used for traumatic brain injuries, removal of cysts and hematomas.
Can brain cancer be cured?
Brain oncology is the most difficult in treatment, since the quality of the information received from the human and from the human information depends on the nerve cells of the big hemispheres and the connections between them. Simply put, trying to destroy cancer cells, it is easy to touch healthy ones, and when localized in the brain, this means a high risk of loss of memory, intelligence, communication between various organs and muscles.
In this regard, neurosurgeons are refining, developing new methods of microscopic intervention to reduce this risk, but in the meantime, Japanese scientists have found an alternative means of dealing with cancer and other diseases. In Japan, the quality control of medical care is at a very high level, so any means of treatment are rigorously tested.
Alternative medicine in Japan is not a way to cash in on naive and trusting patients in a stalemate, but an attempt to prove in practice that everything ingenious is simple, and even complex diseases can be overcome with the help of the resources of the human body itself.
Already 10 years ago, tests of the action of atomic hydrogen on humans were started in Japan with the aim of creating a universal medical device. In 2011, experiments began at the Osaka Institute of Cancer Diseases in the city of Osaka, which confirmed the high efficacy of the therapeutic effect of hydrogen in various diseases, including cancer in the brain and even metastasis.
Of course, the speed of treatment with atomic hydrogen is incomparable with surgery, but as a result of experiments, scientists found out that in 5 months of regular procedures a tumor in the brain can shrink to an insignificant size and completely remove further, as evidenced by clearly demonstrated X-rays and magnetic resonance images .
The technology by which the therapy is carried out is based on the Soviet experimental method of treating viral and bacterial diseases by heating the body to a temperature of 41-42 degrees in order to isolate a special heat shock protein (eng. Heat Shock Protein), which helps the killer T-killers find a cancer tumor and other changes in the body. A significant disadvantage of this method, due to which all work was stopped, is the high risk of denaturation of vital proteins. The Japanese use not only hot water, but also atomic hydrogen, which is released during the electrolysis of water.
By combining the so-called "active hydrogen" with artificial hyperthermia, it is possible to heat the patient's body to 41.5-41.9 ° C without any health consequences. In addition, such a procedure can be performed with an elderly patient, in contrast to the Soviet heating bath. This is very important, since most of the patients with oncology are the very people.
A device made for this procedure in Japan is a comfortable chair enclosed in a tall bathtub. The patient sits in a chair, in the bath water is drawn from the ORP -560 mV. Water gradually heats up. The patient, depending on the severity of the tumor, age and other parameters, is assigned the time spent in such a cell (up to 20 minutes).
Such a kind of rest is still available only to the Japanese in a specialized clinic, so here it is worth mentioning special spa capsules that activate water up to -150-200 mV and make your body healthy at home.
Lecture provided by Yuri Andreevich Frolov: ufrolov.blog
Education: He graduated from the residency in the "Russian Scientific Oncological Center named. N. N. Blokhin "and received a diploma in" Oncologist "
Histological, structural characteristics, features of the course of the disease allow us to distinguish two groups of neoplasms: benign and malignant.
Benign tumors are not capable of division, grow slowly, do not penetrate into other tissues. In their structure they resemble those cells from which they originated, partially retain their functions. Such tumors can be removed by surgery, with relapse occurring extremely rarely. However, benign neoplasms in the brain are very dangerous. They lead to squeezing of blood vessels, the appearance of edema, and stagnation of venous blood, while their location does not always make it possible to remove them.
Malignant neoplasms consist of cells that divide very quickly. Tumors are rapidly growing, forming at the same time whole foci and penetrating into the adjacent tissues. Most often, malignant tumors have no clear boundaries. They are difficult to treat, including surgery, and are prone to relapse.
Location allows you to talk about 3 types of tumors. Intracerebral found in the substance of the brain. Cerebral appear in the membrane and nerve tissues. Intraventricular - in the cerebral ventricles.
In the diagnosis and determination of diseases according to ICD-10, diseases are also distinguished depending on the exact location of the tumor, for example, in the frontal lobes, cerebellum.
Primary tumors appear as a result of changes occurring in the brain. They affect the bones of the skull, gray matter, blood vessels. Among the primary tumors, there are several subspecies:
- Astrocytoma. Brain cells mutate - astrocytes. A tumor is a type of glioma, often benign.
- Medulloblastoma. It is another type of glioma. Neoplasms appear in the posterior cranial fossa, grow as a result of mutation of embryonic cells. This tumor accounts for 20% of all brain damage. Often, it occurs in children of different ages, from babies to teenagers.
- Oligodendroglioma. Oligodendrocytes undergo changes.
- Mixed gliomas. Mutation occurs in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. This form is found in 50% of primary tumors.
- Meningiomas. Cell cells change. More often it is benign, but it can also be malignant.
- Lymphomas. The disease occurs in the lymphatic vessels of the brain.
- Pituitary adenomas. Associated with damage to the pituitary gland, develops predominantly in women. In rare cases, they may be malignant.
- Ependymoma. The cells involved in the synthesis of cerebrospinal fluid change.
Secondary neoplasms manifest metastases from other organs.
The exact reasons why brain cancer occurs and develops have not been established. Only factors that are highly likely to contribute to its appearance are identified.
According to statistics, heredity plays a big role. If there was a person in the family who was struck by cancer, then probably in the next generation or in a generation there will be someone else who will fall victim to this disease.
The second important and frequent factor is a long stay in the radiation zone. Work with chemical elements such as lead, mercury, vinyl chloride, long-term use of drugs has a negative impact. Smoking, use of drugs, alcohol, genetically modified products leads to mutation of healthy cells. Often head injuries become a factor causing oncology.
According to statistics, a brain tumor often occurs in people over 65 years old, men, children of preschool or primary school age. It affects those who spend a long time with a mobile phone, sleeps with it, uses the device with a low charge. Cancer cells often appear after organ transplants or using chemotherapy to remove tumors in other parts of the body.
Signs of a brain tumor early stages can often be confused with symptoms of other pathologies, such as concussion or stroke. Sometimes they are confused with signs of diseases of internal organs. A feature that points to oncology is that these early symptoms do not go away, and their intensity is constantly increasing. Only at later stages does specific symptoms appear, indicating the likely appearance of brain cancer.
The risk of malignant neoplasm in the brain increases in:
- Representatives of male Bola.
- Little patients under 8 years old.
- Persons after 65 years.
- Those who sleep with a mobile phone near the head.
- Liquidators of the tragedy at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant.
- Patients who survived a transplant of internal organs.
- Chemotherapy as a treatment for a tumor, regardless of its location.
How not to miss the signs of brain cancer
As mentioned earlier, the signs of cancer may also overlap with manifestations, such as stroke, migraine or concussion. So if one or two of them appear and then disappear after a short time, then this cannot be considered a signal of the presence of a tumor. But if some symptoms have appeared, and several more have joined them, you should immediately consult a doctor for a diagnostic examination.
Common symptoms of a malignant brain tumor:
- One of the most prominent signs is a headache, which becomes more acute from any physical exertion. But, by the way, in half of cancer patients, at first, it is completely absent.
- Dizziness can also be a symptom of a neoplasm if it occurs regardless of the position of the patient and does not go away for a long time. As a rule, it is due to changes in the pituitary gland or a tumor-induced increase in intracranial pressure.
- The feeling of "vatnost" in joints and limbs is also common. At the initial stage, this symptom usually manifests as weakness, but with the development of the disease partial paresis or paralysis of the limbs may be observed.
- Visual impairment can also be considered as an accompanying cancer of the brain. In this case, they manifest themselves in the form of spots, flies floating before the eyes, and also in the soreness of the optic nerve. Often, nystagmus of the eyeball can occur at an early stage.
- Hearing problems should also alert. They occur as tinnitus or unexplained unilateral deafness.
To all of the above, you can add unreasonable changes in the pulse, pressure drops, pallor or the appearance of heavy spots on the skin, as well as sweating.
Neurological manifestations of cancer
The first signs of brain cancer can manifest as neurological and mental disorders, manifested by apathy, which can be replaced by short-term euphoria, unreasonable aggression and memory lapses. They are often joined by confusion of consciousness, disturbances of orientation in time and space, various manifestations of personality changes, as well as visual or auditory hallucinations.
And with the defeat of the deep parts of the brain, there can be found rapidly increasing signs of complete disorganization of human mental activity.
How lesions appear in different brain lobes
Signs of brain cancer manifest themselves differently, depending on which part is affected. If the tumor affects the pituitary gland or the trunk, then this usually causes impaired coordination. The ability to concentrate noticeably decreases, in addition, the patient may experience a clear double vision before his eyes. Another of the signs is the inability to determine the distance to the object and the gait unsteadiness.
In some cases, brain cancer was manifested by painful sensations when swallowing, difficulty in movements with the tongue, as well as impaired function of the facial muscles or their paresis.
If the cerebellum is damaged, nausea, vomiting, spasms in the nape and nystagmus may be added to the above symptoms.
Brain cancer: symptoms and signs of temporal lobe damage
One or both of the temporal lobes affected by a cancer can cause auditory agnosia and mental disorder in the patient (the patient cannot understand what is said, write under dictation, read, his speech is disturbed). The presence of a tumor in these lobes also causes amnesia, unreasonable fear and excitement. The patient may become depressed.
Signs of brain cancer in this case can be manifested by severe headaches, distortions of taste and olfactory sensations. Patients are often tormented by unreasonable syncope.
Lesions of the medial divisions in the temporal region can also manifest themselves in the form of affective disorders such as exaltation or causeless melancholy, as well as the state of "déjà vu".
Signs of a tumor in the occipital region of the brain
With the defeat of the occipital part, signs indicative of brain cancer appear, as a rule, in visual impairment, since it is here that the centers correct its functions. So, if a patient has a sharp loss of diopters in any eye, in combination with other anxious symptoms, he needs to be examined.
But agnosia (a violation of the process of recognition) can join the deterioration of vision, that is, a person ceases to recognize color, letters or objects. The letter recognition disorder, in turn, causes a violation of the letter.
Separately, you can mention the violation of orientation in the room or on the street, problems in the use of schemes, maps or hours.
In the event of a lesion of the parieto-occipital part of the brain on the border with the temporal lobes, the patient also has a violation of recalling words that denote objects.
Symptoms of damage to the parietal lobe
Signs of brain cancer with the defeat of the parietal lobe, responsible for the perception and reproduction of speech, the patient expressed in violation of these functions (so-called aphasia).
In addition, a disorder of coordination of movements is detected, the patient cannot identify the object by touch. This is caused by the defeat of the secondary cortical fields in the mentioned lobe of the brain, which leads to a breakdown in the ability to analyze sensations flowing into the cortex of the parietal lobe when touched, as well as to weakening the idea of the tactile image of the subject. In medicine, this condition is called astereognosii.
By the way, the first signs of brain cancer in the parietal lobe can also manifest as a violation of the concept of one’s own body — its “pattern”, which is sometimes expressed in a deceptive sense of having several limbs or someone’s hands, as well as an increase or decrease in some part of the body.
How do frontal lobes appear
The frontal part of the brain regulates the intellect, controls the process of performing one or another action, as well as the ability of a person to make decisions. Therefore, a tumor of different parts of this brain lobe can immediately affect the mental state of the patient.
These can be, for example, so-called motor permissions (the patient cannot stop on time and continues to perform some action). So, when asked to draw a circle, a person who has cancer of the brain (signs of damage to its frontal part) will draw a whole hank of circles. The process of writing will also be a problem for him, especially in the case of writing letters consisting of homogeneous elements (for example, the phrase "Mishina machine").
The speech of such a patient is greatly impoverished, it becomes silent, and sometimes, on the contrary, too verbose. Often, the emotional state of a person becomes inadequate, characterized by psychomotor agitation. In addition, the patient may be disoriented in time, his location and even in his own personality.
A few more words about brain cancer symptoms
The number of patients diagnosed with brain cancer, the symptoms, the symptoms of which we considered in the article, increase every year by a third. The reason for this may be a bad heredity, and the influence of severe environmental conditions. But no matter what causes a malignant neoplasm to develop, a person cannot ignore the signs of his appearance.
Do not tolerate a constant headache! And pay special attention if:
- The headache is especially severe, prolonged and intense,
- the pain is accompanied by some other symptoms (nausea, vomiting, loss of vision, changes in hearing, impaired coordination),
- pain is expressed only on one side of the head and lasts at least two weeks.
In addition, you should not stop at the consultation with one doctor. If you suspect that the diagnosis was insufficient or superficial, contact another specialist. In these cases, it is always better to be safe, because only then the brain cancer, the symptoms and signs of which you now know, will not be a sentence for the patient!