Modern dentistry today offers a fairly wide range of methods for solving dental prosthetics. Different technologies and materials, quality and cost of services - sometimes it can be difficult to understand all this.
Dental prosthetics are a set of dental services aimed at restoring natural functions, as well as the colors and shapes of partially destroyed or completely missing teeth. The following types of prosthetics are distinguished: → non-removable prosthetics, → removable dentures, → implant prosthetics.
It is used to recreate the dentition with partial destruction of several teeth by caries, with a strong abrasion of dental tissues, in the absence of one or two teeth in a row, as well as to give a new shape to the teeth or change their color.
Fixation of such prostheses is constant, i.e. it is impossible to remove them without damaging the structure. They are made most often from the following materials:
- Metal alloys (gold-palladium, cobalt-chromium),
- Ceramics (zirconia, porcelain, less commonly aluminum oxide),
- Metal ceramics - metal frame with ceramic coating.
There are the following options for fixed prosthetics:
- Dental crowns perform the role of a cap that mimics the natural shape of the tooth and color, and also restores physiological functions (speech, chewing),
- Bridges or bridges - a complex of several rigidly interconnected crowns. For support, two specially ground teeth are used, between which there is a medial part, compensating for the absence of a number of teeth, but no more than two,
- Tabs are micro-prostheses that restore the shape and color of chewing teeth. They are made of cobalt, metal or gold,
- Veneers (lumineers) not only restore the destroyed tooth, but also significantly improve its aesthetic appearance, create a “Hollywood” smile. Used to restore the front teeth.
The main disadvantage of the fixed bridge prosthetics is the need for turning the abutment teeth, which can be completely healthy, and it is these teeth that will take the whole load for the missing ones.
In addition, fixed prosthetics has some contraindications, so you need to warn the doctor about the presence of chronic diseases.
Removable dental prosthetics
It is used in case of a defect in a number of large teeth (the absence of more than 2-3 teeth in a row). Most often, such prosthetics are offered to older people who have a large number of missing teeth. But sometimes patients who do not want to grind healthy teeth under supporting crowns agree on removable dentures.
Based on the use of a metal arc (from the German. "Byugel" - arc) as a support for the prosthesis. It is used in the absence of a partial dentition. This is the most popular, physiologically and anatomically adapted type of prosthetics. This type of prosthetics is the best alternative to the bridge, which is not always possible.
Clasp prosthetics can have several mounting options:
- Klammers are hooks made of metal at the ends of the arc-base of the prosthesis, which engage on the base of the supporting teeth. This option is not entirely aesthetic and uncomfortable to wear, but it is the cheapest.
- Attachments - are a double mount, one part of which is inside the prosthesis, and the other in the abutment teeth. This is a more comfortable and reliable type of fastening than clasps.
- Telescopic crowns are mounted on the abutment teeth and a precisely fitted prosthesis is put on them and the whole structure is fixed securely with locks after alignment. This is the most expensive type of clasp prosthetics, as it requires orthopedic professionalism, but it is also the most aesthetic.
Acrylic plastic prostheses
The most common and cheap type of removable prosthetics. Twenty years ago it was almost the only way to restore the dentition with its complete or significant absence. Acrylic construction completely imitates the natural dentition.
The main advantage of these prostheses - simple installation and ease of maintenance. Often, acrylic prostheses are put only at the time of manufacture of permanent fixed prostheses.
Significant minus - acrylic plastic often causes an allergic reaction and such prostheses should be removed at bedtime.
Nylon prostheses appeared relatively recently as an alternative to rigid and inconvenient plastic prostheses. Dental nylon, soft, durable and elastic, allows you to very skillfully simulate gums. The base of the prosthesis is made of nylon, on which either ceramic crowns or zirconia crowns are mounted.
There are two ways of fixing such dentures in the mouth.
- If the prosthesis replaces a completely missing row of teeth, then it is attached to the gum due to the effect of “suction” and fixing gels are additionally used.
- If the prosthesis is partial and replaces only a few missing teeth, then the design is attached with nylon hooks to the supporting teeth. The positive moment of such fastening is that it is not necessary to grind the abutment teeth.
It is worth noting that nylon prostheses are light, easy to use and hypoallergenic. In addition, they do not necessarily take out at bedtime.
All types of removable dentures are good because they distribute the load also on the gum, and not just on the remaining abutment teeth.
Prostheses are mounted on special pins (implants) implanted in the jaw bone tissue. The implant imitates the natural dental root, on the basis of which an artificial tooth is constructed. For the manufacture of implants are used hypoallergenic bioinert materials that do not cause rejection - titanium alloys, tantalum, ceramics, zirconium, etc.
Fixed implant prosthetics
It is used in the absence of one or more teeth. A titanium implant is implanted in the gum, on which a ceramic or metal-ceramic crown is then fixed.
With a significant or complete absence of teeth, several implants are implanted into the gum bone, onto which a fixed bridge is installed. This is still quite a rare practice.
Removable implant prosthetics
With the complete absence of teeth, removable dentures are very difficult to fix, there is simply nothing to hold on to. Such dentures often fall out, impair diction, it is difficult to chew, etc.
In such cases, the salvation will be the implantation of 2-4 implants that will help securely fix the prosthesis. Such a prosthesis is removed by the patient without much effort.
What kind of prosthetics is better?
The choice of the method of prosthetics depends on a number of concomitant factors, such as age, health, and financial capabilities of the patient. In each case, this issue is discussed individually in the process of consulting a patient with an orthopedic surgeon. The final decision is always made by the patient, so you need to imagine the difference between prostheses, and not rely entirely on the opinion of a specialist.
Convenience and aesthetics
If there is a choice between removable and non-removable prostheses, then most often the preference for convenience and appearance is given to the second option. Non-removable dentures look more natural in the mouth and adapt to them much faster.
An important role is played by the psychological moment, especially if the person is young enough, the “false jaw” does not attract much.
If the “plug-in jaw” is not missing, then a lot depends on the material and method of attachment. Undoubtedly, nylon prostheses look more attractive than plastic and byugelny. But lately there have been many complaints of heavy adaptation to them. Their high elasticity prevents chewing, makes diction difficult, injures gums.
Reliability and durability
In terms of service life, again, in the lead are fixed metal-ceramic constructions - 10-12 years. And the use of an alloy of gold and platinum increases this period to 15 years. Metal-ceramic prosthetics are universal, it allows you to restore almost all the defects of the dentition with equal success and long-term prognosis.
Removable dentures of the clasp type or of acrylic can last 5-6 years. A little longer (7-8 years), experts guarantee for nylon prostheses.
The run-up of prices for dental prosthetics is huge and depends on a number of components.
First is the amount of work. If you want to compensate for the loss of one tooth - this is one thing and quite another - to replace significant defects in the tooth row. The cost of the clasp dentures is significantly affected by the qualification of the dental technician.
Secondly, it is a material. The more expensive it is, the higher the price of the final product. The most expensive dental materials are ceramics and metal ceramics, most often used for fixed prostheses. The cheapest plastic dentures. The cost of the clasp prostheses and dentures made of acrylic will be higher.
Obviously, it is impossible to take and single out one type of prosthetics, calling it the best. There are many individual clinical cases, as well as financial situations in which the orthopedic surgeon and the patient must jointly find a compromise solution.
Prosthetics with crowns. Crowns are dentures that are mounted on the remainder of a tooth, like a cap. They are made from a variety of materials.
- Metallic. This type of crowns is gradually becoming a thing of the past and today is considered obsolete. Few people want to shine a tooth with every smile. However, sometimes they still do. It cannot be said that their performance is poor - crowns made of gold, platinum and other precious metals are very durable and last for a long time (up to 20 years), they are not very expensive, wear out slowly. But the unattractive and inaccurate fit on the tooth erase these advantages.
- Cermet. Ceramic coating is applied to the metal base, imitating tooth enamel. These crowns are very popular - they are durable, indistinguishable from real teeth, serve up to 15 years and are relatively inexpensive - at least the price-quality ratio is good. However, there are drawbacks - a tooth under such a crown is ground and pulped, and heavy-duty ceramics, if improperly installed, can injure adjacent teeth. Sometimes, if the work was done poorly, a strip of the metal base of the crown may be noticeable at the edge of the gum.
- Ceramic. Made entirely of ceramic, without a metal base. These crowns allow you to most accurately simulate natural enamel, up to texture and transparency. Therefore, these crowns are used for prosthetic front teeth. They do not wear out for a long time and do not change color. But ceramics, for all its strength, is fragile - it can withstand pressure, but not a sharp force, therefore the appearance of chipping is possible. The disadvantages include the high cost of such prosthetic teeth.
- Zirconia. The variety of ceramic crowns in all its positive properties is very similar to the previous look. But the main difference is the most modern, aesthetic and reliable material. Suitable for any kind of prosthetics. Serves from 15 to 20 years.
- Aluminum oxide. It has little resemblance to the material from which it is made, for example, dishes. This is a white translucent mass. Such crowns are durable, look very aesthetic. This is the most expensive type of crowns.
Bridge prosthetics. If several adjacent teeth are lost, it makes sense to build a bridge. A bridge is a structure consisting of several crowns joined together. Bridges are of different types:
- Based on your own teeth. These bridges are mounted on pre-prepared own teeth.
- Implant-supported. If the teeth are lost, the doctor will install implants in their place, on which the bridge will be held. These implants are highly functional (they are a metal pin), so you should not confuse them with aesthetic implants.
- Adhesive Bridge Construction. The bridge is attached with a thin plate glued to the abutment tooth. This method does not require turning of the adjacent teeth, however, the structure fixed in this way does not withstand heavy loads.
- Tabs. Tabs restore the tooth surface, it is a good alternative to fillings. With their help, you can restore even a virtually destroyed tooth. Unlike fillings, they are invisible, very strong and durable, but will cost more than regular fillings.
- Veneers. If the tab is an internal prosthesis, then the veneer is an external one. Veneer is a small pad with which you can repair a chipping or crack, correct the shape of a tooth, reduce the gap between the teeth.
- Lumineers. Luminir is called the thinnest (no thicker than a contact lens) porcelain overlay on a tooth. Despite this, Lumineers are very durable and can last up to 20 years or more. They mask defects and irregularities, make teeth smoother, reduce gaps between teeth. In addition, lumineers are installed by those who dream of a radiant Hollywood smile, but cannot achieve this effect by bleaching (not all enamels are naturally white, they are much more likely to have a yellow or gray subtone). Suffice it to say that most stars of show business use lumineers. This type of prosthesis is low-impact, does not require tooth turning. However, the price of Lumineers is high.
- Micro-locks prostheses. Tiny micro-locks are embedded in the enamel of the neighboring teeth, and the second parts of these locks are inserted into the prosthesis. The abutment teeth do not grind, so the invasiveness is minimal.
Removable dental prosthetics
Such dentures are partially and completely removable. Partially removable can be worn for a long time without removing, they are comfortable and adaptation to them is fast. Fully removable dentures are often used in cases where there are no teeth left. They must be removed at night.
- Acrylic dentures (Acry-Free). The basis of such a prosthesis is made of acrylic, which is similar in structure to real gums. This is a plastic material that does not traumatize the mucous membrane. However, you should be aware that acrylic can cause allergies. In addition, acrylic has a porous microstructure, and this contributes to the proliferation of bacteria. That is why such a prosthesis is recommended to rinse after each meal and daily clean, as, indeed, and teeth.
- Clasp prosthetics. Clasp dentures consist of a base (metallic sublingual or palatal arch), a plastic base and crowns. Most often, these prostheses are used in the absence of chewing teeth.
Fully removable dentures can be:
- on suckers. In fact, there are no suckers in the usual sense. The removable denture is held by the elasticity of the material, as if enveloping the gum,
- fixed using special creams. However, it is important to remember that a quality-made removable denture adheres perfectly to the gums, and additional fixation with a cream (or so-called glue) may be needed later only because of the atrophy of the comb and bone, as well as due to the loss of stabilization.
Prosthetics in the absence of a large number of teeth or their complete absence
In cases where most of the teeth are lost, a bridge can help. But it is not recommended to install it for replacing more than 3 teeth in a row - the load on the abutment teeth will be too strong, and the design will quickly break. In addition, such a bridge will deliver discomfort to the patient. Implants are the most reasonable, though rather expensive solution to the problem. But then, having restored the teeth, which will become a support for the prosthesis, you will not face the problem of bone tissue atrophy and the need to relocate or additional fixation of the structure, which is typical of removable prostheses.
Today, there are various ways to restore teeth with complete loss based on implants. Economical option - conditionally removable prosthesis on 4–6 implants (for example, using Quattro Ti technology). This design will last a long time, will evenly distribute the load, the prosthesis will not need to be removed every day, it can be cleaned right in the mouth. However, at least once a week, it will still have to be “unfastened” (the prosthesis is mounted on locks or a beam) and carry out a “general cleaning”. As for the possibility of “restoring teeth forever,” then your option is a non-removable dental bridge based on 8–12 implants (the so-called byugel). Today, in cases of complete absence of teeth, dentists are increasingly opting for implantation with an immediate load of the prosthesis. This approach will allow the patient to restore functionality in a short time and facilitates the process of prosthetics.
But there are situations when implantation is contraindicated for health reasons, in these cases removable or partially removable dentures may be the best option, especially if there are almost no teeth left. Note that Acry-Free and Quattro Ti prostheses are inexpensive, convenient, but not the strongest options, and byugelny designs are exceptionally reliable, but have a high price.
The choice of the type of prosthetics is the work of the dentist, and not the patient, and something very difficult to advise in absentia. A suitable type of dental prosthetics is chosen based on many factors: the health and age of the patient, the degree of preservation of the teeth, individual characteristics, material capabilities and lifestyle. But one thing is certain: modern dental prosthetics can solve any problem.
Choosing a dental clinic for the procedure of prosthetics
Choosing a dental clinic is a serious step. You need to ring a lot to find out all about the services offered and prices. But there is a simpler way. You can call +7 (495) 215-52-81 of the dental prosthetics hotline with the support of the Dental Association and get an urgent consultation of the orthopedist. Professional consultants will listen to you, ask clarifying questions and advise which options may be appropriate in your case, which clinic is best suited to solve the problem and is in line with financial possibilities, tell about the benefits of different systems and technologies. You can also ask all your questions on the website: www.zubi-protezi.ru. All consultations for Hotline patients are free.
Note that the portal allows visitors to sign up at once to several doctors in different clinics, which helps to compare options. All orthopedists and implantologists participating in the project are thoroughly tested for compliance with the qualification requirements, and based on the feedback from the patients, the doctors rating is formed. In the project clinics, prosthetic actions are regularly held, which means you have a chance to save money.
The dental prosthetics hotline with the support of the Dental Association is a non-profit organization whose mission is to monitor public health, provide informational assistance, improve the level of care in clinics, conduct joint events that are interesting for both patients and clinics.
License No. LO-77-01-014630 dated August 03, 2017 issued by the Moscow Department of Health.
Major varieties of partial denture designs Edit
- Arc or byugelny dentures with a cast frame and acrylic base of the removable part.
- Laminar dentures, made entirely of acrylic plastic and laminar dentures with a metal base.
- Small saddle prostheses used for unilateral end and included defects of the dentition.
- Nylon Prostheses
According to the type of fixation, such dentures are divided into
- Clamp fixing
- Castle fixation
- Telescopic fixation
- Fastening prostheses with pelotov
Necessary examinations before prosthetics
Modern dental prosthetics is, first of all, a comprehensive examination of the patient who has applied to the clinic. For the diagnosis should be used modern equipment. The more thoroughly and more fully the doctor performs the initial assessment of the condition of the teeth and oral cavity, the better the patient will receive in the long run.
Diagnostics before choosing the method of prosthetics of teeth must necessarily include:
Visual examination of the oral cavity, as well as the maxillofacial apparatus of the patient. The orthopedic dentist should evaluate the health of the teeth, the quality of their hygiene, the condition of the oral mucosa, the degree of neglect of existing diseases, etc. In addition, the doctor assesses the functioning of the masticatory muscles, the state of the temporomandibular joint and the patient's posture,
X-ray imaging. This will allow to visualize the state of the periodontal disease, as well as the alveolar processes located in the upper and lower jaw. X-ray examination also makes it possible to estimate the length and direction of growth of the roots of interest to the doctor, the size of the tooth cavity, the condition of the channels and roots,
The assessment of the chewing muscle tone and their activity is performed using such diagnostic methods as electromyography and electromyotometry,
Taking impressions, which will be modeled on the future project. The study of the model obtained will allow to work out the characteristics of the bite, perform preliminary turning, etc.
After the examination, the doctor discusses with the patient the possible types of prosthetics.
There are two main types of dentures: removable and non-removable structures. Each of these species, in turn, is divided into subspecies with certain disadvantages and advantages.
Removable prosthetics are used most often in the case when the patient has a shortage of several teeth: three or more. Moreover, the missing teeth should go in succession, one after another. The main feature of a removable denture lies in its name, that is, periodically it must be removed from the mouth to perform hygienic procedures.
Removable prostheses can be of the following types:
Acrylic plastic plates,
The phrase "byugel prosthetics" has German roots. "Byugel" in German means "arc", it is precisely its shape that repeats the prosthesis. This type of prosthetics can be applied only in the case when the patient has at least two teeth in his mouth, as it will be attached to them.
Materials protruding base for the manufacture of removable clasp prosthesis can be as follows: titanium, nylon, acetal, hromokobaltovy alloy, zirconium, metal ceramics.
Such a prosthesis can be fixed with the help of various devices:
Attachments are double fixings, when one half of the micro lock is located in the inner part of the prosthesis, and the second is in a metal-ceramic crown, which is put on the tooth-support. Closes the lock when putting on the prosthesis. In this case, the prosthesis is securely fixed, the locks are not visible when smiling and during meals, and the service life of such prostheses varies in the range from 5 to 7 years. However, byugel dentures on attachments will cost more than their counterparts with other types of fastening. The fact is that attachments are imported from the USA and Germany, which determines their high cost,
Klammers are hooks made of metal. They are a continuation of the arc of the prosthesis itself and are fixed directly at the base of the teeth that serve as a support. The undoubted advantages of such prostheses are their low cost and preservation of the integrity of the tooth enamel. However, such structures have their drawbacks. First of all, it concerns the aesthetic side, as often the clasp is possible to install only on the front surface of the abutment tooth. In this case, it falls into the smile line and will be noticeable when teeth are exposed,
Telescopic crowns. This type of clasp prosthetics is the most expensive. The prosthesis is made by a high-level orthopedic dentist, has the maximum aesthetics. Crowns of this type are fixed on the patient’s own teeth with the lower part, and a prosthesis is put on them. It is fitted with high precision and falls directly into the grooves in the crowns. When the combination is achieved, it remains only to snap the locks, which allows you to securely fix the structure,
Splint byugelny prostheses are used in the absence of a tooth-support on one side of the jaw, with periodontal disease, when the teeth are displaced under the conditions of the dentition, when exposing the roots of the teeth. The design will be made in the arcuate form, and the clampers will fix each tooth separately. The advantages of the splinting type of attachment are that the gums and the mucous membrane of the mouth will be protected from mechanical damage while chewing food, the teeth will not loosen. The disadvantages of such prostheses is that they are quite difficult to manufacture, and this will certainly affect the price,
Clasp prostheses with fixation on implants are applicable in the case when the patient has no end teeth. Instead of missing teeth in the presence of bone of the jaw of the required thickness, the person inserts implants. They subsequently act as a support for the partial denture.
The undoubted advantages of the clasp dentures are:
Reliable fixation in the mouth,
Possibility of installation in the presence of mobile teeth
No need to remove the prosthesis at night time,
Easy to care,
Long service life with proper operation.
Nevertheless, removable by-through processes have the following disadvantages:
This type of denture cannot be installed if there are no healthy teeth in the mouth cavity, running one after another,
Often these prostheses take a long time to get used to them, sometimes the adaptation period lasts up to several weeks,
Gums can be rubbed with prosthetic attachments.
Indications for the use of clasp dentures consider:
Replacing one or more teeth
The presence of a defect in the dentition,
The presence of an end defect
The need to correct the curvature of the dentition,
Periodontal therapy with splinting technology.
Contraindications to clasp prosthetics are:
The absence of teeth, acting as a support,
Acute stage of diseases of the cardiovascular system
Inflammatory processes in the oral cavity in the acute stage,
Diseases of the respiratory system in the acute stage.
Dentures made from acrylic are traditional removable dentures.
They can be divided into several types:
Full removable. This type of prosthesis is installed if the patient has no teeth. Instead of the abutment tooth, the alveolar process of the mandible is used. On the upper jaw, the prosthesis is additionally fixed for the sky. In this case, the fixation of such a prosthesis is not entirely reliable, since the person does not have teeth.
Partial removable prostheses of acrylic can be applied in the case when the patient has at least one healthy tooth. Naturally, he will act as a support.
Conditionally removable or integumentary prostheses with fixation on implants. These prostheses will hold onto mini implants previously implanted into the patient's jaw. Their number is calculated in each case individually.
Naturally, acrylic prostheses have both their advantages and disadvantages. Of the benefits can be identified:
Low prosthesis weight,
No need for front facing
Ease of hygiene,
The maximum term of operation is up to 5 years.
The disadvantages of dentures made of acrylic include:
Long time of patient's adaptation to the prosthesis,
The possibility of an allergic reaction to the components of the prosthesis,
The presence of a porous structure, which is a favorable breeding ground for bacteria,
The probability of injury to the soft tissues of the oral cavity, the risk increases in parallel with the number of missing teeth,
Destruction of the abutment tooth over time.
Indications for use of acrylic prosthesis:
Adentia partial and complete
Bite correction in children with late loss of milk teeth,
Temporary replacement of the dentition in prosthetics with non-removable structures.
Contraindications to the use of acrylic prosthesis:
The presence of an allergic reaction to the components of the prosthesis,
Severe resorption of the jawbone, leading to flattening of the alveolar part (the prosthesis simply will not hold)
Pronounced vomiting reflex in a patient.
About 20 years ago, nylon dentures replaced plastic prostheses, which were used as teeth replacement for people with complete lack of them.
Dental nylon allows you to quite accurately simulate the gums, since the material itself is soft, elastic, translucent. This makes it much more comfortable to use than hard plastic prostheses.
Dental crowns that are attached to a nylon prosthesis are made either from ceramics or zirconium dioxide.
The dentist will fix the finished denture in one of the following ways, depending on the condition of the patient's oral cavity:
If your own row of teeth is missing completely, then the prosthesis will be attached to the gum. Reliability of fixation is provided by the effect of suction after application of a special gel to the prosthesis,
If the prosthesis replaces only a part of the teeth, then the nylon structure is equipped with several hooks of the same material. They are mounted on the abutment teeth, directly near their base. At the same time, the abutment teeth do not need such a painful procedure as a facing.
The undoubted advantage of nylon prostheses is that they get used to them after a week of regular wear. The material has hypoallergenic properties, does not stain over time, and does not require complex manipulations in the care. If the rules of operation of the product will not be violated, then such a prosthesis can last up to 8 years.
High aesthetic characteristics of the prosthesis are ensured by the fact that the clasps have gum color and are almost invisible on the teeth. Therefore, nylon prostheses are often called invisible prostheses.
However, it is worth noting the disadvantages of dentures made of nylon, including:
Trauma to the gums located in the region of the extreme teeth.Since the clasps will not be made of metal, but of nylon, they are not able to fully transfer the pressure that is in the process of chewing on the tooth-base. Therefore, the pressure falls on the mucous membrane of the prosthesis bed. This will lead to the destruction of the bone tissue that is under it, and the height of the gums will decrease. As a result, the prosthesis will sit in this place, and its clasps will cut into the mucous membrane of the remaining teeth. As a result - the development of the inflammatory process, the appearance of pain,
The larger the prosthesis, the stronger will be its elastic deformation during chewing food. That is, due to the softness of the nylon prosthesis, the load will be distributed only on the other side of the jaw with which the person is chewing. As a result, the bone tissue will quickly atrophy from this side, and the process of chewing and biting food will cause discomfort, causing pain. However, if a nylon prosthesis replaces only 2 teeth, then the patient will not feel the same disadvantage
Accelerated subsidence of the prosthesis as a result of atrophy of the bone tissue under it,
Difficulty in polishing the prosthesis. Inside the prosthesis is not polished at all, which is laid by the technology itself. As a result, if it is not subjected to careful hygiene, microbial plaque will accumulate under it and dental deposits will appear. This, in turn, will provoke an unpleasant smell from the prosthesis and it will be impossible to insert it into the mouth,
High manufacturing cost
Repeated correction due to subsidence of the gums.
Indications for use of nylon prostheses:
Absence of 1-2 teeth in the event that the patient does not wish to grind the tooth-base,
Partial or complete lack of teeth
Allergic reactions to the components that make up acrylic prostheses,
Contraindications to the use of nylon prostheses:
Insufficient height of existing teeth
Motility of the mucous membrane covering the gum,
Atrophy of the gums more than 20%.
Fixed dentures can be fixed either on the tooth, which is located nearby, or on the artificial tooth root - on the implant.
Fixed dentures may be of the following types:
Dental crowns, which are a cap on the tooth, completely imitating its shape. Dental crowns can also be put on dentures that are fixed on artificial roots,
Bridge prostheses are a complex of dental crowns that are put on the patient’s teeth, or on the roots of the teeth,
Implants are the roots of teeth made of titanium or zirconium. They are set to subsequently put a crown or bridge on them,
Tabs, veneers, lumineers are fixed structures, the main purpose of which is to improve the appearance of the tooth or the tooth row.
The dental crown is a prosthetic tooth, made according to its anatomical shape with fixation on the tooth-stump.
They can be made of the following materials:
Crowns made of metal. They are made from various alloys, as well as from precious metals. All-metal crowns can be installed if there is a need to restore molar teeth.
Solid metal crowns, the base for them is an alloy of chromium and cobalt, sometimes such crowns are covered with gold plating, the main disadvantage is low aesthetic characteristics,
Stamped crowns are made from a sleeve that is shaped into a tooth with a hammer. They have a lot of flaws, lead to various diseases of the oral cavity (in modern dentistry, almost never used)
Gold crowns, very expensive, they can be installed only by state clinics.
Crowns made of metal ceramics. They are strong enough, look aesthetically pleasing, which makes it possible to install them on the front teeth. However, to install such a crown, you will need to grind the tooth heavily and remove the nerve from it. The service life of such a crown can reach 10 years,
All-ceramic crowns, made of ceramic material, the base for which is either porcelain or zirconium dioxide. Porcelain crowns have a high aesthetic appeal, but they are very expensive and can only be made singly. Zirconia-based crowns also have much in common with natural teeth, but in addition to this they are strong and durable. The only drawback of such a crown is its high price,
Metal composite crowns are an alloy of chromium and cobalt, the front part is covered with plastic. They have excellent aesthetic qualities and are inexpensive. Among the disadvantages are the fragility of the structure, the possibility of allergic reactions, the rapid loss of the original color and the appearance of bad breath from the mouth due to the high absorption of the liquid,
Plastic crowns one of the undoubted advantages are of low cost, however, the service life of such crowns will not exceed 5 years. The fact is that a layer of plastic is applied on a metal frame and after a short time it changes its original color. Another common drawback of such crowns is the rapid separation of plastics.
The dental bridge is a construction that is fixed by means of supports on natural or implanted bases. The size of the bridge varies depending on how many teeth you need to replace.
According to the method of fixation, it is customary to distinguish bridges:
With fastening on healthy adjacent teeth (their preliminary turning is required),
With fastening on implants (without prior turning),
With mounting on special plates - adhesive bridges (no turning is necessary, but the service life of such dentures does not exceed 5 years),
With fastening on the lock when the tooth or an implant support is not required.
Depending on what material is used for the manufacture of the bridge, emit:
Cermet bridge restorations. Their base consists of metal, which is covered with ceramics on top. The service life of such products is up to 7 years,
Metal-plastic bridges with metal base, which is covered with plastic from above. The service life of such products, as a rule, is limited to three years,
Bridges with a combined composition. Such designs can be made of zirconium oxide, aluminum. These are the most modern prostheses that serve for a long time, up to 15 years, and are distinguished by high quality materials.
The main advantage of the installation of the bridge denture is the ability to fill the lack of several teeth at once. In addition, high-quality bridges will serve a long period of time, subject to compliance with all medical recommendations and care rules. The remaining advantages and disadvantages will depend on the type of material from which the prosthesis is made. The pros and cons of metal-plastic, metal-ceramic and other types of bridge prostheses are similar to the pros and cons of dental crowns of the same materials.
If we consider the drawbacks of bridges in general, they will be as follows:
Stroke own teeth used as a support. This requires the installation of any bridge, except adhesive. It, in turn, differs in not so reliable fastening,
The need to have your own healthy teeth, or the installation of an implant,
The development of the mobility of those teeth that act as a support. This is due to overloading them,
Possible atrophy of that part of the jaw, which is located under the jumper.
Dental implantation is the installation of a pin, which will perform the function of the root of the tooth, and from above it will be subsequently put on and secure the crown. As a result, people will find a strong new artificial tooth. In 99% of cases, it survives well and does not cause any undesirable health effects. The materials from which dental implants are made are metals (chrome alloy, titanium, stainless steel) and ceramics.
The implant itself is shaped like the root of a person’s natural tooth (more on implants). It is screwed into the jaw, and after engraftment, an intermediate part (abutment) is installed, on top of which a crown of the selected material is fixed.
Positive aspects in the installation of the implant are:
Elimination of the defect without harm to the health of the teeth, located in the neighborhood,
High aesthetic properties
Long service life (up to 15 years or more),
Stopping the bone resorption process due to the absence of a tooth.
The disadvantages of the implantation procedure are:
Long time of implant engraftment, which can be up to six months,
The development of complications in the form of swelling of tissues, pain, development of bleeding, rejection of a foreign body,
A large number of contraindications.
Indications for implantation are:
Loss of one or more teeth
End defects of the dentition,
Lack of teeth (full edentulous),
Intolerance to removable dentures due to pronounced gag reflex or in the presence of individual hypersensitivity to plastics.
Absolute contraindications to the installation of implants:
Psycho-emotional disorders (depression, hypochondria, psychopathy, psychosis),
Seropositive infections (syphilis, tuberculosis, etc.),
Systemic diseases of the blood, bone and connective tissue,
Diseases of the heart and blood vessels of the chronic course,
Oncological processes of malignant nature.
Diseases of the oral mucosa.
Tabs, veneers, lumineers
A separate type of prosthetics is microprosthetics of teeth, for which methods such as the installation of inlays, veneers and lumineers are used. These products are fixed prostheses and can last for a long time, sometimes up to 10 years. None of the microprostheses can replace a lost tooth; they are aimed at its restoration, at eliminating the defect and at improving the aesthetic qualities.
So, dental tabs are micro prostheses, which can be either restorative (restore the color and shape of a tooth) or stump (the coronal part of the tooth is restored).
Made of metal (used on chewing teeth) and they are not visible when talking or smiling,
All-ceramic zirconia or extruded ceramics,
The service life of such tabs can reach 10 years, which is their undoubted advantage. In addition, the tabs are often used for chipping the tooth.
Veneers are thin plates that are attached to the front of the teeth, located in the smile area. These teeth pads can be made of composite, porcelain, or zirconium dioxide. They are designed to hide a huge number of aesthetic disorders: chips, discoloration of enamel, gaps between teeth, scratches, curvatures. It is the attractive appearance of the teeth after installing the veneers on them that is their main advantage.
The disadvantages of veneers are as follows:
Pre-fronting of the front teeth, with the result that they will never be the same as before
The need to wear veneers throughout life, or the replacement of your own teeth with prostheses.
Lumineers are a type of veneers, but their distinguishing feature is their increased strength. Lumineers last longer than veneers and can be installed for 20 years. Depending on the desires of the patient, Lumineers can be fixed without prior facing. The disadvantage of these dentures is their high cost.
What kind of denture is best for dentures?
The choice of the best denture will depend on a number of factors. First of all, it is the implementation of the main function of the prosthesis - chewing. In addition, it must have aesthetic appeal. The issue price is also important for most of the patients.
The choice of the type of denture depends on the number of missing teeth, on the patient's oral cavity condition, etc. Therefore, it is possible to determine what type of denture is best for dentures in the dentist’s office.
Prosthetics in the absence of a large number of teeth
Prosthetics of teeth in this case can be the following types:
Install laminar dentures in the case when the teeth are missing completely.
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Toothache is always the cause that upsets the quality of a person’s life. The pain may be insignificant and unbearable, constant and periodically arising, aching, pulling, shooting, throbbing, etc. In order to understand why teeth hurt, it is necessary to determine all possible causes of this condition.
Toothache: acute, aching, pulling, shooting requires an appeal to the dentist. However, to quickly get to the doctor is not always possible, how to get rid of a toothache in this case? In this case, folk remedies may come to the rescue. At the time, relieve it, reduce inflammation and wait for the moment when visiting the doctor will be possible.
Teeth whitening along with caries treatment is one of the most popular dental procedures. A snow-white smile is a sign of beauty, health and well-being, therefore people spend no time and money in pursuit of it. In the arsenal of modern dentistry there are lots of tools for teeth whitening, which make it possible to lighten them by 4-8 tones.
With all the strength of tooth enamel, it is not completely invulnerable and is subject to destruction under the influence of some factors. Thinning and defects of enamel lead to deterioration of the teeth, an increase in the risk of carious destruction of all its tissues, which do not differ in similar hardness. This situation is also dangerous because.
Dentistry is one of the areas of medicine where modern scientific technologies are being introduced most actively. The first drill, with the help of which attempts were made to drill through bad teeth, appeared in the Roman Empire. Since then, progress has gone far ahead, and now teeth can be treated quickly, painlessly and effectively.
The oral cavity in which the teeth are located is one of the most polluted cavities of the human body. Therefore, the question of how to properly brush your teeth is very important for the preservation of their health. The process of brushing teeth is a hygienic procedure aimed at removing c.
Most of the complications after tooth extraction are associated with the addition of an infection. Many microorganisms live in the oral cavity, many of them conditionally pathogenic - that is, under certain conditions they can provoke an infectious process. So, if the hole after the removal of the tooth is deep enough, it is not closed with a blood clot and.
Major problems with removable prosthetics Edit
The main problems of removable prosthetics include the frequent need to cover healthy abutment teeth with crowns, for using them to support the detachable part of the partial denture with locking fixation, as well as to avoid the mechanical action of the clamer on the tissue of the abutment tooth leading to the defect of the latter. The volume of the basis of the prosthesis leads to various inconveniences, such as a temporary violation of diction or the occurrence of gag reflex. Also, patients often note the natural micromotion of the clasp prosthesis.The long wearing of removable dentures aggravates the atrophy of the bone tissue of the edentulous part of the jaw, which prevents further implantation of the teeth.
Conditionally removable dentures are an extended bridge that can be removed for a short time for personal hygiene. Such prostheses, as a rule, have a lock or telescopic fixation. An example of such a design is an arc metal-ceramic prosthesis with a telescopic attachment on implants with the complex rehabilitation of complete loss of teeth with a uniformly pronounced atrophy of the alveolar process.
It is considered to be that prosthetics with non-removable orthopedic structures are shown with a single tooth loss, with defects of a short dentition, defects of the dentition included. In case of multiple loss of teeth and large defects, the use of bridges supported by teeth is not justified due to the functional overload of the latter. In such a situation, removable prosthetics or implantation is indicated.
Indications for prosthetics can be not only medical, but also cosmetic.
There are two fundamentally different concepts of prosthetics: conformative and reconstructive.
Conformative prosthetics is the manufacture of individual crowns or prostheses, without changing the relative position of the jaws. That is, new restorations are formed under the current habitual bite (including the wrong one).
Reconstructive prosthetics is carried out with a change in the relative position of the jaws. Simulation of restorations is carried out taking into account a different closure of the teeth (more correct from the point of view of the dentist). This approach is much more complicated than the conformative. For its realization it is necessary to have a full prosthesis of at least one (and more often both) dentition (all upper or all lower teeth). With the wrong choice of a new version of the occlusion increases the risk of developing temporomandibular disorders.
Before the start of the orthopedic stage, it is necessary to cure the abutment teeth - to eliminate and fill up carious cavities, to solve periodontal problems. If the tooth is destroyed below the level of the gum (it should be shallow - no more than 2-3 mm), transfer the subgingival defect into the supragingival defect. This is done through orthodontic extrusion or surgical lengthening of the crown part of the tooth. Orthodontic training is also necessary if the tooth is incorrectly positioned in the dental arch or is migrated as a result of the removal of other teeth (tilting towards the missing adjacent tooth or advancing towards antagonists). Otherwise, it will be necessary to dissect a significant amount of tooth tissues, this often requires depulping and subsequent restoration of the tooth with pin structures.
Depulping of teeth before prosthetics in other situations is contraindicated. Preventive depulping of the teeth under the crown is unjustified.
Carious cavities on the contact surfaces of adjacent teeth adjacent to future crowns must also be cured before prosthetics. This also applies to defective fillings and other restorations.
The abutment teeth of the removable denture should have a pronounced equator. If it is not, then it is necessary to produce crowns of the appropriate shape, even for intact teeth.
Implantation is also a stage of preparing teeth for prosthetics. Bone tissue is necessary for successful implantation, and therefore careful tooth extraction will also be a preparation stage. Otherwise, additional augmentation of the bone will have to be performed before installing the implant itself. The same thing happens if a significant period has passed since the moment of removal - the bone tissue of the alveolar process of the jaw in place of the missing tooth atrophies.
Since 2004, government employees in Turkmenistan have been forbidden to have gold teeth. “I am proud that all my teeth are white. In Turkmenistan, the fashion for gold crowns existed when we lived poorly. It is time to abandon the remnants of the past, ”commented Saparmurat Turkmenbashi. "The teeth of the young should be strong and healthy, like a dog, to gnaw the bones," said Turkmenbashi. The next day, by order of the Minister of Education and the rectors of universities, all the students were sent to dental clinics to take off the golden crowns.
Since the possible technical variants of tooth replacement do not completely restore the function of the dental apparatus, the research environment continues to search for ways to grow teeth from the buds. In humans, their number is limited. At the moment, some researchers have managed to grow several new teeth from the anlage of the dental tissue of mice, dividing the anlage into two.
Prices for dental prosthetics
|Partial acrylic denture for 1-3 teeth||from 8 200 ₽|
|Partial removable denture Economy Class - 1 jaw||from 17 500 ₽|
|Partial removable plastic Ivoklar prosthesis - 1 jaw||from 20 100 ₽|
|Partial prosthesis Acre-free - 1 jaw||from 35 000 ₽|
|Partial removable prosthesis nylon prosthesis||from 35 000 ₽|
|Base fix||4 600 ₽|
|Welding 1 tooth on the prosthesis (acrylic)||1 800 ₽|
|Manufacturing cast stump tab on single-root tooth||4 200 ₽|
|Cermet Crown||from 8 200 ₽|
|E-MAX ceramic crown||from 16 000 ₽|
|Zirconia crown||from 20 100 ₽|
|Ceramic-metal crown on SGS implant (excluding the cost of a standard abutment)||from 12 300 ₽|
|Complete denture made of nylon material||35 000 ₽|
|Full removable acrylic prosthesis Ivocap||29 900 ₽|
|Acetal clasp prosthesis with transparent (white) clasps||57 200 ₽|
|Double sided prosthesis on clamps||50 500 ₽|
|Double sided prosthesis on clamps from KHS 2-4 clamer||37 000 ₽|
|Double sided prosthesis with two attachments||52 500 ₽|
|Veneer E-MAX||from 16 000 ₽|
|Restoration (composite, therapeutic) veneer||13 900 ₽|
Inexpensive dental prosthetics in St. Petersburg with a quality result is not at all fiction, if you initially choose treatment without hidden costs and additional fees. We work according to this principle, offering the patient a wide choice of dentures in different price categories, denoting the exact cost of prosthetics for a consultation. The clinic produces metal-ceramic crowns, ceramics and zirconium crowns, veneers, removable Ivoclar and Acry-Free dentures, as well as restoration of teeth on implants.
The attending physician will talk about prostheses suitable for your clinical situation, will highlight alternative prosthetics with a detailed discussion of their advantages and features. Our patients have the opportunity to restore teeth at even more favorable conditions, which are available with regular promotions and special offers!
A denture is a mechanism that protects the affected tooth from external influence, or even replaces it, and also allows you to restore the chewing function and gives an aesthetic appearance to the teeth.
- Acrylic - a budget price with a decent aesthetics, suitable for the restoration of any number of teeth,
- Acri-Free - comfort and convenience without developing an allergy to acrylic, because it is absent in the composition,
- Clasp - strength and functionality of the design, which takes up little space in the mouth,
- Nylon - unsurpassed softness and elasticity, no rubbing, quick adaptation.
- Veneers - the thinnest facing plates for microprosthetics of the front teeth when they darken or have a minor chipping,
- Metal-ceramic crowns - a decent appearance and durability at an affordable price, the material is a cobalt-chrome alloy that does not affect the color of the gums,
- Zirconia crowns - excellent aesthetics and maximum resistance to stress with a service life of more than 20 years, fully biocompatible with the human body,
- Crowns on implants - the most reliable version of dental prosthetics with implantation of titanium root in the jaw, we offer proven implants SGS (Switzerland), Alpha-Bio (Israel), Nobel (Sweden).
The possibilities of our clinic allow us to choose and implement any treatment method with the achievement of long-term results. According to reviews of patients, good performance shows both removable and non-removable prosthetics - the indications for each technique are determined by consultation.
Orthopedic treatment consists of several stages:
- Inspection, diagnostics. The doctor finds out complaints, examines the oral cavity, directs the patient to radiographs and takes pictures from the jaws. Based on the diagnostic information, a treatment plan is drawn up, you will immediately find out the exact dates of delivery of the finished prosthesis, the price of treatment.
- Preparatory events. Includes therapeutic, surgical and orthopedic training, if necessary. Professional oral hygiene is required, infection foci are eliminated, carious teeth are treated and non-functional teeth and roots are removed.
- Making prosthetic design in the laboratory. According to high-precision castings, a dental technician makes a prosthesis (on average in 1-2 weeks, depending on the complexity). At this time, the defect is masked by a temporary plastic construction.
- Installation, explanation of oral care rules. Fixed structures are fixed with dental cement or “screwed” onto the screws (if we are talking about a crown on the implant). The doctor checks the fit of the prosthesis, makes valuable recommendations to facilitate adaptation.
In Affordable Dentistry, advanced technologies and imported materials are used to provide the comfort that patients expect in everyday life. Despite the inexpensive prosthetics, reliability and accuracy of the result for our specialists in priority. Come to the consultation, we will give you the opportunity to fully chew and smile!