In acute forms of giardiasis, you can use a one-step treatment regimen with a course of antiparasitic therapy. The drug of choice is metronidazole treatment 5-7 days. Adults appoint 250 mg, children - 15 mg / kg / day. in 3 doses every 8 hours (without chewing, during or after a meal, or drinking milk). Another mode of admission in adults: 2.0 g at a time for 3 days or 0.5 g / day. within 10 days. According to the clinical and pharmacological article, specific dosages are recommended for the treatment of giardiasis: for adults, 500 mg 2 times a day for 5-7 days, for children 3-5 years old, 250 mg / day. , 5-8 years at 375 mg / day. , over 8 years old - 500 mg / day. in 2 receptions, the course of treatment is 5 days. It should be borne in mind that at the moment the use of metronidazole and other derivatives of nitroimidazole, as well as furazolidone, loses its relevance due to the appearance of a large number of parasite strains resistant to them.
- Tinidazole, taken once: adults - 2.0 g, children - 50-75 mg / kg (no more than 2 g) during or immediately after a meal. With the ineffectiveness (the presence of giardia in the contents of the duodenum or in the feces 7-10 days after the end of therapy), the treatment is repeated in the same dose. It is recommended that all family members be treated at the same time. Differences from metronidazole: a longer half-life (about 12 hours), is available in dosage forms for internal use only.
- Furazolidone, a course of treatment 7–10 days: adults — 0.1 g 4 times a day, children 6–10 mg / kg / day. 4 reception after meals. The highest single dose for adults - 200 mg, daily - 800 mg.
- Mepacrine (quinacrine), treatment is carried out in cycles: the first cycle is 5 days, the second is 3 days, the third is 3 days with an interval of 7 days between them. Dosage regimen: adults - 0.1 g 3 times a day (every 8 hours, 30 minutes before meals), children - 6 mg / kg / day. (no more than 300 mg / day.) in 3 doses. Used as an alternative to the group of derivatives of nitroimidazole (metronidazole, tinidazole, etc.). Efficiency in adults reaches 90%, in children is somewhat lower.
- Albendazole, a 5-day course of treatment for 0.4 g once a day. The dose in children is 15 mg / kg / day. within 5-7 days. Albendazole is a promising drug for giardiasis, in studies in vitro it is shown that it is 30-50 times more active than metronidazole and tinidazole in this indicator. This drug is also effective in treating metronidazole-resistant Giardia strains.
Treatment of folk remedies Edit
Treatment of Giardia is possible and folk methods, although less effective. Treatment by folk methods is more gentle and can be used regardless of age. For such purposes, suitable garlic juice, carrot juice, wormwood, tansy. Also, repeatedly raised the issue of the feasibility of drug treatment.
What is giardiasis?
Giardiasis is an invasive disease caused by protozoal parasites and characterized by lesions of the small intestine. The main manifestations of giardiasis are allergic and pathological neurological reactions.
The causative agent of giardiasis is the simplest flagellated microorganism - giardia (Giardia). Modern science knows about 40 species of lamblia, but in the human intestine only Lamblia interstinalis parasitizes.
This protozoan microorganism exists in the form of cysts and in the form of vegetations. The vegetative lamblia has a pear-shaped shape, somewhat resembling a human face with a tense smile. Giardia are not longer than 24 microns in length, but 12 microns in width; therefore, they are visible only under a microscope.
On the ventral side of the parasite, there is a suction disc, which is used for attachment to the villi lining the human intestine. Giardia feed on the entire surface of the body, absorbing the substances they need for vital activity.
In the form of vegetation Giardia very actively moving. In this they are helped by flagella, their parasite has 4 pairs. Outside the human body, vegetative forms are not capable of long-term existence and die within a few hours.
After the parasites penetrate the human intestine, Giardia begins to divide, forming a new vegetation and a cyst. Cysts come out with the feces of the patient. Unlike vegetations, cysts have good resistance in the environment. They retain their vitality without a human body for 18 days or more in water, and with sufficient humidity they live for about 4 days. Cysts do not respond to chlorine treatment, but do not tolerate drought. Without sufficient moisture cysts die within a few hours.
Giardia lead an independent lifestyle, fully meeting their needs at the expense of the host organism. Giardiasis is widespread. Most carriers of this protozoal infection live in Latin America, Africa and Central Asia. The causative agent of the disease was first detected in human feces in 1684 by Antonia van Leeuwenhoek, and described in detail by the parasite scientist DF Lyambl in 1859. This microorganism was named after him.
Animals along with humans are subject to giardiasis. This parasitic invasion is found in rabbits, dogs, cats, rodents, cattle and other mammals. A person most often becomes infected from another person, who allocates Giardia cysts to the external environment, but the possibility of infection from animals is not excluded.
Already after 9-22 days after the initial invasion, a person becomes dangerous to others, as with feces he begins to release into the external environment cysts of parasites that are ready for infection. Only 1 g of feces can contain 23 million cysts of parasites, however, the average number of cysts per 1 g of feces is 1.8 million. At the same time, from 1 to 10 cysts can get into the human digestive tract. Under such conditions, the risk of invasion will vary between 10-30%.
To reduce the toxic effects of lamblia degradation products under the influence of etiotropic treatment in children over 5 years old, it is recommended to use Demianov tubing with mineral water, 25-30% magnesium sulfate solution, sorbitol, xylitol 1-2 times a week. This exercise prevents the absorption of toxic products and reduces the manifestation of the reaction of Jarisch - Herxheimer. Simultaneously with the specific treatment, the patient is prescribed an abundant drink and diet. If maldigestion syndrome and malabsorption is detected, enzyme therapy is prescribed, and if bowel dysbiosis is detected, a corresponding correction is made.
Patients with giardiasis, in addition to the treatment prescribed by the doctor, must follow a diet that includes boiled meat, kefir, cottage cheese, cabbage, carrots, lingonberries, cranberries, should be limited to the use of sweet and flour dishes.
Prevention consists in timely identification of patients with giardiasis and their treatment. Carrier examination of lamblia of children suffering from unstable chair is being conducted.
It is necessary to protect food from pollution, to fight flies. It is forbidden to use water from open reservoirs without prior boiling, to use unwashed vegetables and fruits. It is important to follow the rules of personal hygiene.
Every year more than 140 thousand cases of giardiasis are recorded in Russia. The number of adults of this figure is about 30%. The disease is dangerous primarily because it has an asymptomatic course, and the clinical signs that occur in an adult are not specific. Often giardiasis is hidden under the mask of biliary dyskinesia, chronic enteritis and other pathologies of the digestive tract.
The mechanism of transmission of parasitic infections is fecal-oral. Ways of transmission - through the hands, through the water, through food, inseminated cysts of parasites. Some insects, in particular, flies, can carry lamblia cysts.
The prevalence of giardiasis is due to the high contamination of the parasite cysts of most environmental objects:
Per 1 cubic meter of water in open waters accounts for 4 to 30 cysts.
Up to 1091 cysts per 1 liter of non-treated wastewater.
For 1 liter of treated wastewater, which will be discharged into open water bodies, there are from 10 to 35 cysts.
Per 1 kg of soil in pre-school educational institutions located in non-canalized settlements, there are up to 112 cysts (in 11-22% of all investigated soils).
In 6% of cases, cysts were found in the washers from the door handles in kindergartens, in 3% in the washes from the hands of children, in 2% in the washes from the pots of children, and in 0.2% in the washes from toys.
Cysts maintain their viability in water from 15 to 70 days, in the feces they live from 2 hours to a day. If cysts get into open water, then at a temperature of 2 to 22 ° C they can live for about 3 months. In the sea, cysts retain the ability to invade for 47 days.
However, cysts are not resistant to heat and when boiled they die instantly. As for food, on fruit, parasite cysts are able to remain viable for 6 hours, in dairy products they can live up to 12 days, and sometimes up to 112 days.
In various countries around the world, giardiasis outbreaks have been reported due to drinking untreated water, which has not been properly treated in waterworks. For example, a similar situation was observed in America, in Egypt, in Sweden.
In most preschool children are infected through dirty hands. The source of the spread of giardiasis are other children, as well as staff.
Do not exclude the possibility of infection by parasites through food. Cysts can get on the finished food from the hands of those people who are in contact with them. Or infection occurs when eating poorly processed fruits, vegetables, herbs, etc.
Causes of Giardiasis Infection
Causes of Giardiasis infection is an invasion by an intestinal parasite called Lamblia intestinalis.
Giardia breed in the small intestine of a person, in those places where they accumulate the most. The mode of reproduction is the continuous pair division of vegetative individuals. The speed of this process is very high and on average is 20 minutes, as a result, the intestine is populated by parasites rather quickly.
The activity of lamblia and the speed of their reproduction directly depends on the state of the human digestive organs. The number of individuals sharply decreases during fasting and when a patient eats a sufficient amount of protein food. When carbohydrate food enters the body, on the contrary, there is an insufficient release of bile into the intestinal lumen, which stimulates the growth and reproduction of parasites.
The more active the processes of parietal digestion in the intestine, the faster lamblia begin to divide, which explains the high prevalence of invasion among children, compared with the adult population. Favorable conditions for the existence of the parasite in the intestine is reduced acidity of gastric juice.
The source of infection is always a sick person. Moreover, he himself may be a carrier of lamblia, and there will be no symptoms of the disease at all. A person becomes contagious approximately 8-12 days after the invasion. The incubation period in some cases may be shorter, especially with a massive infection with Giardia.
Cysts stand in the external waveform. The pause between this process can be from 1 to 17 days. If a person has been infected once, and there is no subsequent reinfection, he will remain infectious for 6 months.
From the point of view of maximum infectiousness, the most dangerous is the patient whose symptoms of giardiasis have subsided. During this period, intestinal peristalsis normalizes, and favorable conditions are created for the reproduction of parasites.
One gram of feces can contain about 1.8 million cysts capable of invasion. And in order for an infection to occur, it is enough to swallow only 10 cysts.
The mechanism of lamblia transmission is fecal-oral. Ways of infection: food, contact-household and water.
Most often, a massive spread of giardiasis leads to massive outbreaks of infection. It is possible infection during a visit to the pool, while swimming in open water. Giardiasis can be transmitted by eating foods that have been seeded with parasite cysts. There are cases of infection during sexual contact between male homosexuals.
There is a high risk of transmitting giardiasis under the following conditions:
Non-compliance with personal hygiene. First of all, this concerns poor-quality and untimely washing of hands after visiting public places, toilets and before eating.
Poor handling of food that is eaten raw.
Drinking unboiled water, especially from open natural sources. Giardia can be present in any water, including spring water.
Poor sanitary living conditions, the presence of insects in the house. Flies and cockroaches, which spread the infection, are particularly dangerous.
Infection with giardiasis from invasive animals is possible: dogs, guinea pigs, cats, etc.
The following occupations are more susceptible to invasions:
Employees of educational institutions (kindergartens, schools).
Medical workers (laboratory technicians).
Risk factors for giardiasis in adults:
A large amount of carbohydrate foods in the diet.
Insufficient use of protein foods and foods with fiber (vegetables, fruits, cereals).
Reduced acidity of the stomach.
Long-term treatment with antibacterial drugs, which leads to excessive bacterial growth in the intestine. Such an environment is favorable for the existence of Giardia.
In the Russian Federation, the disease is most often recorded in the spring (April and May), as well as in the summer. The least cases of giardiasis are observed in November and October.
For years, the danger of giardiasis has been greatly underestimated. Modern scientists have no doubt that parasites are a threat to human health. Therefore, Giardia in adults should be diagnosed and treated in a timely manner.
Entrance gates for parasites are the upper sections of the small intestine. There, mature cysts lose their protective shell and become vegetative individuals. One cyst gives 2 trophositis. With the help of flagella, they move along the intestinal mucosa, finding comfortable conditions for their existence.
After attachment to the villi of the intestine, the vegetative forms begin division. Colonization of the organ occurs very quickly. Only one square centimeter of intestine can contain up to 1 ml of individuals. The maximum number of Giardia falls on the upper portion of the small intestine. It is here that the parasites have optimal conditions for access to the gaps between the villi from which they absorb carbohydrates, fats, proteins, mineral salts and other nutrients. In later periods Giardia descends into the middle and diminished parts of the small intestine.
Those vegetative forms of lamblia that are not attached to the fibers descend into the large intestine, where they become cysts. After that, cysts absorb flagella and become covered by a protective sheath. This process is maximally facilitated under the condition of normal intestinal peristalsis.If it is accelerated, which is observed in diarrhea, the vegetative forms of Giardia do not have enough time to form full-fledged cysts, and they leave the external environment insufficiently protected. As it was said, such vegetations very quickly die outside the human body.
For a long time there was confidence that Giardia can parasitize in the biliary tract. However, it has been proven that bile in high concentrations is destructive for these parasites. They lose vitality in it in a few seconds.
The factors that contribute to mass outbreaks of giardiasis among the population are:
High density of people
Low level of sanitary and hygienic skills among the population,
Insufficient or low-quality sedum of drinking water before it enters the water supply.
Naturally, the risks of invasion for an adult increase if one or several children under the age of 10 live in the house.
Is Giardia Transmitted?
Are lamblia transmitted from person to person? Giardia is transmitted from person to person.
Are lamblia transmitted through kiss, saliva? Transmission of lamblia through a kiss is theoretically possible, provided that parasite cysts are present in the saliva of a person during a kiss.
Are lamblia transmitted from cats to humans? The transfer of lamblia from cats to humans is possible.
Is it possible to see Giardia in feces? It is impossible to see lamblia in Calais by yourself, since their sizes are very small. Therefore, parasites in the feces can only be visualized under a microscope.
How can you get infected?
Lamblia cysts remain viable in the external environment for about 90 days. They enter the human body in the following ways:
- Water. Parasites are transmitted through raw tap water, so boiling it is an obligatory preventive measure.
- Contact and household. Giardiasis - a contagious disease, the penetration of the pathogen is possible through common household objects, handshakes with an infected person. Another risk factor is non-compliance with personal hygiene.
- Food Thermally unprocessed foods (meat, fish), poorly washed fruits, berries, vegetables are dangerous.
Both mice and pets, such as dogs and cats, can carry cysts on themselves. And also it is necessary to mention flies, which are especially active in the summer months. In the warm season, bathing in water bodies is also relevant, their use as a source for domestic needs, which is unacceptable.
Forms of the disease
Lambliosis is peculiar to several forms of disease. According to the degree of activity and frequency of manifestations of symptoms emit an acute, chronic form. The acute form is characterized by a rapid, noticeable development of giardiasis. It is in such cases that patients seek qualified help. The chronic form of giardiasis is masked by the pathology of other diseases, it is diagnosed in most cases by chance.
- subclinical - takes 50% of all cases
- asymptomatic - 25%,
- manifest - up to 44%.
The latter form of the disease also has its own classification. Depends on the place of localization of Giardia.
- Intestinal form of giardiasis in adults. Digestive upset, dysbacteriosis, gastrointestinal diseases are observed. These include gastroduodenitis, gastroenteritis, duodenitis, enteritis, and other inflammatory pathologies.
- Biliary - pancreatic form. Associated with impaired digestion, metabolism, with clinical manifestations of inflammation of the biliary tract, a violation of bile discharge. The patient has gall bladder problems. Pathologies such as pancreatitis, cholecystitis, cholangitis, biliary dyskinesia are diagnosed. Along with this, there is a violation of the liver, an increase in its size.
- Extraintestinal form of giardiasis. Causes toxic - allergic symptoms. There is a change in the composition of the blood, the growth of allergens with which the body can not cope. Manifested allergic skin rash, atopic dermatitis, urticaria, eczema, acne on the face, back.
- The mixed form of giardiasis in adults combines all of the above symptoms.
The clinical manifestation of symptoms depends on the presence in the body of other diseases of a chronic nature, general health.
Symptoms and first signs
The first signs of infection occur 1-3 weeks after the cyst lamblia enter the body, when adult parasites begin to live in the small intestine. First, the disease proceeds in the acute stage, which, by symptoms, resembles an upset gastrointestinal tract.
Signs of the acute stage of giardiasis:
- severe dysentery - while in the stool there are no inclusions of blood, mucus, which is typical of ordinary indigestion,
- flatulence - arises due to a violation of intestinal microflora,
- pain in the abdomen, mainly in the upper part - the nature of sensations is constantly changing: from aching to acute pain,
- general ill health - the body begins to gradually deplete.
Signs of chronic giardiasis:
- general malaise - arises due to depletion of the body, due to nutritional deficiencies, most of which are absorbed by parasites,
- asthenia, fatigue,
- attention becomes distracted, memory deteriorates,
- body weight decreases
- immunity deteriorates, private infectious diseases occur,
- allergic reactions
- bitterness and dry mouth
- pallor and peeling of the skin,
- periodically the temperature rises.
When the first signs of the disease appear, it is worth examining in order to confirm the diagnosis in time to start treatment.
If time does not cure the pathology, the body is significantly weakened. Parasites, subject to their long life, provoke serious failures of the main systems. Immunity is particularly affected, the risk of developing viral, bacterial infections increases. In the started situations there are dangerous states:
- Severe intoxication as a result of massive accumulation of parasites. As a result, a person suffers from an allergic reaction that is difficult to stop, and his appearance deteriorates.
- Disorder of the nervous system. Against the background of irritability, apathy, there is a decrease in concentration, memory deterioration.
- As a result of intestinal inflammation enterocolitis develops, duodenitis, duodenal pathology occurs.
- The defeat of the gallbladder with the appearance of symptoms of dyskinesia, cholecystitis. Therefore, regular pain in the side - the reason for an immediate visit to the gastroenterologist and detailed examination.
Another unpleasant complication of giardiasis is vascular pathology. It is caused by the manifestations of vegetative dystonia as a result of severe poisoning of the body.
Modern medicine offers several methods of examination in the event of a suspected intestinal infection with parasites.
- Studies of feces. Coprological examination is a collection of feces and a search in it with a cic Giardia microscope. If an infection has occurred, cysts, in most cases, are detected immediately. However, it also happens that an infected person has a specific portion of feces that may not have traces of Giardia, so it is advisable to hold several intakes of material (4-5) with an interval of one week.
- Examination of the intestinal contents. Duodenal endoscopy provides a more adequate picture of the patient’s intestinal condition. To confirm the diagnosis, a small amount of content is taken from the small intestine cavity with a special probe and examined under a microscope. Experts claim that the most effective method of duodenal examination is to collect the contents of the duodenum by a vacuum method using a three-channel probe.
- Blood test Serological tests for the presence of specific antibodies in serum are an excellent method for the diagnosis of giardiasis. GSA 65 antibodies can be detected in a sample two weeks after infection. Today, the serological method of research is one of the most effective in the diagnosis of parasitic diseases. In addition, it is much easier for patients to tolerate than duodenal examination.
How to treat Giardia in adults
Treatment regimens for giardiasis are implemented by taking antiparasitic drugs, including:
- Tinidazole (Tinogin, Ametin, Fazizin). Take the selected drug will take 1-2 days. The effectiveness of treatment reaches 80%.
- Tiberal (Ornidazole). The drug can be taken on different schemes: one day, three days, five days and ten days. The effect, even with a daily intake reaches 92%.
- Drug Makmyror. The effectiveness of this drug reaches 96.8% after a week of intake.
In this case, the treatment of Giardia in adults is carried out in stages.
1) The preparatory stage before the treatment of giardiasis. At the preparatory stage, it is necessary to try to mechanically remove the maximum amount of Giardia from the intestines, as well as to remove intoxication from the body. At this time, the patient must adhere to a dietary regimen.
To do this, the patient must comply with the following recommendations:
- Completely exclude from the menu sweet and carbohydrates that are quickly digested
- Eat fiber-rich foods
- Eat protein foods,
- Refuse whole milk, limit fat intake,
- Eat according to the regimen, switch to split meals (5-6 times a day),
- Drink more liquid, preferring sour fruit drinks and choleretic broths.
Supplementing the diet is the intake of enterosorbents, choleretic drugs, antihistamines and digestive enzymes. In this way, conditions unfavorable for the reproduction of parasites will be created in the intestine and the rate of their division will decrease significantly.
2) Use of antiparasitic agents against Giardia. The second stage of antiparasitic therapy takes 5-10 days. All drugs are prescribed by the attending physician, since almost all drugs have contraindications and side effects.
How to treat Giardia in adults - a list of drugs:
- Metronidazole (Trichopol) - the dosage in adults is 0.4 g three times a day, vomiting, nausea, headache, and sleep disorders are possible.
- Albendazole - 0.4 g once for 5 days, may develop liver failure, nausea and vomiting, hyperthermia.
- Phazizin - one tablet 4 times a day for 2 days.
- McMiror - 15 mg per kg of body weight, taken twice a day after meals for a week, possible manifestations of diarrhea, gastralgia, skin rash, nausea and bitterness in the mouth.
- Furazolidone is rarely used, since the drug is ineffective against modern strains of parasites.
Drugs and dosage for the treatment of children are selected with special care, trying to minimize the toxic effect of drugs.
How to treat Giardia in children - drugs:
- Flamin - 1/3 or 1/2 tablet three times a day, the course of treatment is for 10 days.
- McMiror - is used from 2 years on 15 mg per kg of body weight of the child, not more than 0.4 g in total. The course of treatment with a 2-fold reception takes from 7 to 10 days.
- INTETRIX - recommended for children from the age of, therapeutic dose is? -1-1? capsules thrice daily.
Along with taking antiparasitic drugs, both adults and children take a course of antihistamines, enzymes and sorbents.
3) Restoration of the body after treatment of giardiasis. The final stage of treatment is aimed at improving the patient's immunity, to normalize the intestinal microflora. To do this, he is prescribed vitamin-mineral complexes, intestinal bacteria, enzyme preparations.
As a rule, the prognosis for giardiasis in adults is quite favorable. In the event that the patient strictly fulfills all the prescriptions of the treating doctor, recovery is observed in 92-95% of cases. However, reinfection is not excluded, therefore, the patient should remain at a follow-up clinic for another 3-6 months. During this time, it must be examined at least 2 times.
Drug therapy combined with natural substances. Treatment of Giardia folk remedies in adults is based on the action of choleretic and astringent herbs, anti-parasitic collections.
Here are some recipes:
- Tincture of horseradish and garlic. Garlic and horseradish are taken in equal proportions, cleaned and crushed with a blender. Then 50 g of the mixture is placed in a prepared, clean container and poured over with a bottle of vodka. The container is closed with a tight lid and left in a dark place for a week. The finished tincture is filtered and take 1 tsp. half an hour before meals in the morning and evening. If the tincture seems too bitter, it can be pre-diluted with a small amount of water.
- Pumpkin seeds. It is important to take not store, in bags, gut a pumpkin. Pound 300 grams of raw materials with a mortar, shift the glass jar, add 50 grams of honey and water. Eat this mass on an empty stomach in an hour, take a laxative.
- Infusion of tansy. Brew 1 tablespoon of herbs in a glass of boiling water. Let's drink to the patient in small sips, 3-4 times a day.
- Remedy for lamblia of oats. 250 grams of oats pour a liter of boiling water, put on fire, evaporate a little less than a quarter of the total. Drink a glass 4 times a day.
- Rowan infusion. To prepare a therapeutic agent, dried fruits of mountain ash (1 tsp.) Pour 200 ml of boiling water and insist 2 hours. Ready infusion consumed before each meal in a volume of 100 ml.
- Infusion of corn stigmas. A tablespoon of vegetable raw materials pour a glass of boiling water, insist 3 hours. Drink a tablespoon four times a day.
Traditional recipes are quite effective, they can be included in the complex therapy after consulting with your doctor.
Nutrition and Diet
Diet for giardiasis in adults at the first, preparatory stage, is based on products that slow down the reproduction of Giardia. It is recommended to limit the consumption of carbohydrates (farinaceous foods and sweets) to a minimum and give preference to protein foods and foods high in fiber. During this period, the patient needs to eat:
- Fresh and boiled vegetables
- Dried fruits
- A variety of cereals
- Lean meat
- Vegetable oil
At the third, restorative stage, the daily menu is made on the basis of products that improve intestinal peristalsis. In the diet include:
- Boiled lean meat and lean fish
- Dairy products (kefir, yogurt, cottage cheese)
- Fruit and vegetable puree
- Kashi (oatmeal, buckwheat, pearl barley)
- Baked apples
- Fresh fruits and vegetables (cabbage, carrots, apples, pears)
- Berries (cranberries, lingonberries)
Bread, flour, confectionery and sweets, whole milk, pasta should be completely excluded from the diet. It is recommended to refuse sausages, canned meat and animal fats. Of the cereals, you can eat rice, buckwheat, barley.
The patient must comply with the enhanced drinking regime in order to quickly cleanse the body of toxins. It is useful to drink acidic cranberry juice, cranberries, green tea with lemon, fresh juices (carrot, beetroot, birch).
To avoid infection with Giardia, you must strictly follow the rules of personal hygiene:
- Wash hands thoroughly before eating and after each use.
- Wash vegetables and fruits with extreme care. If you use them raw, be sure to pour boiling water over it.
- Drink only purified boiled water.
- Avoid swimming in questionable and dirty water with standing water. Do not allow such water in your mouth.
- Be sure to wash your hands after talking with pets and carry out their anthelmintic treatment.
- Wear gloves when working on the garden plots.
- Destroy flies, they are the main carriers of parasites. Do not allow them to enter the kitchen, to food.
- When detecting cysts, prevent disease prophylaxis in all family members.
Causes of Giardia Infection
Man himself is the cause of the parasite. Giardia and cysts (parasites in a protective shell) can settle in the body due to elementary non-compliance with the rules of hygiene, in contact with an infected person, animal, insect, poor processing of products before use.
Factors in the appearance of the disease in adults are weakening of the immune system, lowering of the acidity of the stomach, prolonged use of antibiotics, poor nutrition, drug addiction. There are such methods of transmission of giardiasis in adults:
- Water - if a person drinks water from the tap, bathes in ponds, does not wash his hands after using the toilet,
- Contact and household - if a person is in contact with objects contaminated with cysts in the house: towels, dishes, toys,
- Food - if a person eats unwashed foods.
Giardiasis often suffers from people working with children, laboratory technicians in medical institutions, aspirators. There are other causes of invasion. This disease can become infected even during childbirth or during anal sex (if the partner is a carrier of parasites).
The main symptoms of giardiasis
A distinctive feature of the disease is that it does not immediately manifest itself. The first signs of the patient can be noticed only after 1-2 weeks. A person has headaches, appetite disappears, the skin becomes unhealthy in appearance, indigestion occurs.
But sometimes giardiasis is asymptomatic, the presence of the disease can only be detected by diagnosis. Symptoms of this parasitic disease are distributed depending on the form of the disease:
- Acute - fever up to 38 degrees, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, flatulence, headache, rash on the body, loss of appetite, neurotic disorders,
- Chronic - constipation or diarrhea, bloating, increased flatulence, retching, tongue, pale skin, loss of ability to work, allergic dermatitis, urticaria, cutting or moderate abdominal pain,
- Asymptomatic - the disease is mild, there is no cause for concern in humans.
In case of late treatment of the invasion, the disease from an acute or asymptomatic form flows into the chronic stage. If an alarm is sounded in time, it is examined and the treatment prescribed by the doctor, then the treatment of the problem will take no more than 7 days.
Methods of diagnosis lamblia
For accurate diagnosis of giardiasis, it is necessary to undergo laboratory tests. They will help to accurately determine the type of parasitic infection. To determine the presence of unicellular protozoa, it is necessary to pass feces for a scorological study. The collected material must be delivered to the laboratory in a timely manner. To increase the effectiveness of the study, it is necessary to take feces up to 7 times with an interval of 1–2 days. When passing this analysis, it is necessary to take into account that while taking antibiotics, laxatives, antidiarrheal drugs, the indications in the studies may differ from the real picture.
There are cases when experts can not get accurate information about the disease on the analysis of feces. Then the doctor prescribes additional research methods. To confirm the diagnosis, he can give direction to the delivery of such tests:
- Blood test - to detect antibodies,
- Intestinal biopsy is a method by which one can find out whether the structure of the small intestinal tissue has changed or not.
An indirect way to recognize the disease is: the study of bile, ultrasound of the abdominal organs, fibrogastroduodenoscopy, etc. Unicellular parasites have a negative effect on the intestinal microflora. Problems in the gallbladder, duodenum, intestine may be a sign of invasion.
Treatment of giardiasis in adults
Independently conduct therapy for the disease can not. Only an infectious disease doctor will be able to correctly diagnose and prescribe an effective treatment. Therapy of a parasitic disease is aimed at improving the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract, eliminating all symptoms of the disease, improving the immune defense, preventing giardiasis.
To eliminate the disease, it is necessary to undergo a complex treatment with the obligatory use of natural and / or synthetic (pharmacy) drugs, traditional medicine.
To get rid of Giardia, it is imperative to undergo a course of therapy with the use of potent drugs. Tablets for giardiasis will help the patient quickly get rid of parasites. The choice of drugs in pharmacies is large, but it is not recommended to choose a drug yourself. Only a specialist can accurately determine which pills fit the patient, will be the safest for him. Most often, infectious diseases prescribe the following tablets for giardiasis:
- Ornidazole. It has a sensitive effect on Giardia. Initially, the drug violates the respiratory processes of the simplest, as a result of which they die. The frequency of use of the drug is determined by the doctor. The course of treatment is 1 week.
- Tinidazole. The drug quickly inhibits the development of lamblia, destroys their DNA. Take 1 tablet at bedtime for 5 days. After completion of therapy, the patient must undergo a blood test for the presence of Giardia. If these protozoa are identified in the study, then treatment with Tinidazole should be repeated.
- Macmiror. The drug is highly effective, has a strong antibacterial effect. Assigned to 2 tablets 3 times a day. Macmiror differs from other tablets by its mild effect on the human body. It does not violate the intestinal microflora, side effects after it are observed in rare cases.
- Nemozol. These are chewable tablets, adults are given 1 unit (400 mg) per day, taken 5 days. The drug is prescribed at the second stage of treatment, after cleansing the body with diet and enterosorbents.
- Pyrantel It affects lamblia by blocking the transmission of nerve impulses. The simplest quickly die, do not linger in the intestine, are displayed in dead form with feces. The dosage of the drug is prescribed on the basis of the weight of the patient: 10 mg of medicine are needed per 1 kg of weight.
It is necessary to take tablets from a giardiasis strictly according to recommendations of the expert. Each drug of the above has its own contraindications, as well as side effects. Tablets are toxic, they are not recommended for use in the treatment of pregnant and lactating women.
Natural preparations from lamblia
Herbal preparations show high efficacy in the fight against protozoa. They are appointed in case the means of synthetic production are contraindicated to the patient. Among the popular drugs of natural origin are the following:
- Baktefort. Its composition contains such plant components as: black currant leaves, primrose, licorice root, echinacea, meadowsweet flowers. Take the drug should be as follows: 1 tbsp. l pour boiling water (200 ml). Drink half a glass warm before meals twice a day.
- Helmimfort. A completely natural product, which consists of extracts of such plants: laurel, rosemary, Manchurian walnut, as well as seeds of amaranth and bucco. This Swiss drug comes in the form of drops. An adult needs to take 10 drops diluted in 1 tbsp. l water, 2 times a day.
- Intoxico. The preparation includes bear bile, Djungar ferule, sumac juice, auxiliary components. Take twice a day before meals.
The peculiarity of using natural products is that they need to be taken for a long time - at least 1 month. Only in this case, you can expect a positive result of treatment. The listed natural remedies can be used not only for treatment, but also for the prevention of giardiasis. The drugs are safe, they can be taken by pregnant and lactating women.
Diet for giardiasis in adults
Great importance in the treatment of this parasitic disease has a diet. Lamblia living in the human body, comfortable in an environment rich in carbohydrates. And the acidic environment for them is unfavorable. For successful treatment of the disease you need to follow a diet.
Thanks to her, the patient will be able to create a critical habitat for these pathogens. As a result, the number of Giardia will be reduced. In the diet of the patient is prohibited to enter such products:
- Sweet drinks, soda, kvass,
- Flour products,
- Sweet fruit
- Semi-finished products
- Fried, smoked, pickled, salted, spicy dishes,
- Fast food,
- Vegetables that irritate the stomach and intestines.
In this disease, it is useful to use kefir, sour milk, sour fruits and berries, fruit drinks and fruit compote from fresh berries without sugar, porridge on water. Raw foods must be boiled before boiling. Remember that proper nutrition for giardiasis - the key to a speedy recovery.
Video: look like Giardia in feces under a microscope
The most popular and effective method of detecting cysts and Giardia is feces. The material for analysis must always be taken fresh, the result of the study depends on it. In the video below, you can see enlarged cyst lamblia under a microscope.
Once in the body, these flagellated unicellular begin to feed, multiply, their number reaches an incredible amount. Then they turn into cysts (covered in a protective sheath), migrate into the colon. Leaving the body during bowel movements, these parasites can maintain their livelihoods for 2 months. Giardia are persistent protozoa, they survive in all conditions. It is important to adhere to preventive measures, to undergo proper treatment in avoiding re-infection.
Giardiasis is a serious problem that has reached a global scale. Although the disease does not threaten a person’s life, it undermines its immunity, disrupts the work of many organs and systems. Only with strict observance of the rules of hygiene, the fulfillment of all preventive and curative measures, can the disease be avoided and no complications appear.
Below you can leave comments about your ways to treat giardiasis. We also recommend sharing this article with friends on social networks. After all, the problem is not only individual, it is social. Let's all seriously approach its solution, and then the number of infected should gradually decrease.
Symptoms of Giardiasis
Symptoms of giardiasis are often absent altogether. Asymptomatic disease is observed in 65% of patients. If the clinical picture manifests itself vividly, then most often this is due either to massive invasion, or to the disruption of the human immune system, or to the ingestion of certain strains of infection with high virulence. For example, in people with HIV, the disease is much worse than in healthy patients. Periods of remission are replaced by frequent periods of exacerbation.
The following classification of giardiasis is considered to be the most complete:
Asymptomatic carriage of giardiasis
Pronounced symptoms of giardiasis. Severe symptoms of the disease include:
Affection of the intestine with enteritis, enterocolitis, duodenitis and duodenal dyskinesia (intestinal form of the disease).
Hepatobiliary form in which the symptoms of cholecystitis and biliary tract dyskinesia come to the fore.
Giardiasis, as a concomitant disease.
Based on a study of the symptoms of giardiasis in people of different age groups, Zalipaeva T.L. identified the following main syndromes of the disease:
Dyspeptic syndrome, which is leading and present in the clinical picture of 81.5% of all patients.
Pain syndrome, which is inherent in 76.9% of all infected.
Astheno-neurotic syndrome with increased fatigue, irritability and headaches. Similar symptoms are observed in 64.8% of patients.
Allergic reactions of the body. Most often, patients have atopic dermatitis. This syndrome occurs in 15.7% of cases.
It was noted that such syndromes can be present in any of the listed clinical forms of giardiasis. With regard to laboratory data, then with giardiasis in 31.5% of patients there is an increase in the number of eosinophils by 5-7%.
The consequences of giardiasis
The consequences of giardiasis occur with a long course of the disease. First of all, the human immune system suffers, which provokes persistent viral and bacterial diseases.
Secondly, the risk of developing chronic diseases of the digestive system increases, from which it will be impossible to get rid of even after curing giardiasis. Perhaps the development of acute pancreatitis, cholecystitis, gastroduodenitis, ulcerative lesions of the stomach and intestines.
Thirdly, during parasitic invasion, the patient suffers from allergic reactions that can result in bronchial asthma. Its symptoms can also persist throughout life, even if cured giardiasis.
Where do lamblia come from adults? This type of parasite can exist in an inactive form for a long period of time. But, getting into the human body, they begin their livelihoods and active reproduction. Giardia enter the body in the following ways:
- oral-fecal, that is, if the elementary rules of hygiene are not followed,
- by eating dirty vegetables and fruits,
- at the moment of intimacy with the affected person
- when drinking raw water.
You should also not forget that flies can be carriers of Giardia. Therefore, in the warm season it is required to protect your home as much as possible from the entry of such insects, especially into the kitchen.
It is important to know! Giardia in the human body multiply exponentially, filling their small intestines with their cysts in a short time! Therefore, in the diagnosis of giardiasis, immediate treatment is required.
Symptoms in adults
How are Giardia in adults? In the early stages of the development of the disease, the symptoms are sluggish, or they may not appear at all. As the Giardia reproduces in the body, the affected person begins to experience such ailments:
- dysfunction of the biliary tract, which is accompanied by painful sensations in the abdominal cavity near the navel,
- constipation or diarrhea,
- nausea, usually leading to vomiting,
- unpleasant smell from the mouth,
- loss of appetite or complete loss of it,
- a sharp decrease in body weight
- allergic manifestations after consuming dairy products,
- bitter taste in the mouth,
It is important to know! At the first unpleasant sensations, it is required to consult a specialist for the diagnosis of giardiasis, since the disease can develop into a chronic form. To identify parasites in the body and subsequent treatment should consult a gastroenterologist or infectious diseases.
Chronic Giardiasis in adults
If the disease has developed into a chronic form, the person constantly experiences fatigue, since the parasites feed on the beneficial substances of their host. A person struck by Giardia may observe such signs:
- pain in the abdominal cavity, which can give in the lumbar,
- constipation and diarrhea, which constantly alternate,
- lack of nutrients in the body,
- loss of appetite,
- nausea after every meal
- discoloration and peeling of the skin,
- unreasonable irritability,
- reduced immunity
Also, in case of chronic giardiasis, other diseases of a chronic nature may worsen. Treatment in such situations will take longer.
Treatment of infection
The treatment scheme aimed at removing parasites from the human body includes the following steps:
- improving the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract,
- the use of anti-parasitic drugs,
- consolidation of the result by creating adverse conditions in the body for life and reproduction of Giardia.
It includes the observance of certain rules of nutrition, which contribute to the improvement of the bowels. Diet for giardiasis is aimed at creating an acidic environment, because in such conditions Giardia becomes uncomfortable to exist. You should enter into the daily menu such foods:
- Compotes. They should be prepared from sour berries and fruits. Sugar is better not to add.
- Vegetables. It is useful to use tomatoes, carrots, cucumbers, beets. Thermally they must be cooked by boiling or quenching.
- Sour fruits, such as: apples, kiwi, lemons, oranges, etc.
- Berries: blackberries, viburnum, red and black currants, cranberries.
- Low-fat varieties of meat and fish. They should be boiled.
- Sour milk products. To give preference to cottage cheese, kefir, cheese and natural yogurt.
Daily consumption of the above products will help create an acidic environment, which negatively affects the existence of Giardia.
As for the products from which to refrain in this period, these are:
- flour and confectionery,
- whole milk,
- semi-finished products.
These products create a favorable environment for the life of Giardia.
It is important to know! Eat should be in small portions 5-6 times a day!
Represents the use of antiparasitic drugs. The most effective drugs in this group:
- Nemozol. Antihelminthic drug, which has a destructive effect on both cysts and adults. Therefore, the tool gives a positive effect even if lamblia are observed in the liver. An adult needs to take 3 tablets daily after eating food for 1 week. During this period, such side effects as nausea, rashes on the skin, headaches, high blood pressure can be observed.
- Enterol. This drug group of probiotics has a positive effect on the intestines, thereby destroying Giardia. Take should be 1 capsule 1 time per day for one week.
- Macmiror. Today it is the most effective drug for removing Giardia from the body, because it has the minimum number of side effects. After taking McMiror can be observed: bitterness in the mouth or itching. Take 2 tablets 2 times a day. The course of such treatment lasts 7 days.
- Tinidazole. A fairly effective drug, if you strictly adhere to its dosage. The treatment regimen includes a single dose of 3 tablets at night. In chronic form of giardiasis, it is required to take 1 tablet every 12 hours. Total should drink 3 tablets. After taking can be observed such ailments: nausea, vomiting, dizziness, drowsiness.
Important to remember! When removing Giardia with the help of medical preparations, it is necessary to strictly adhere to the dosage prescribed by the attending physician!
This is the final stage, which is needed in order to avoid the chronic form of the disease. Its duration should be about 3 weeks. During this period, the following activities are required:
- follow a diet, the same as in the preparatory stage,
- take complex vitamins, probiotics, as well as enzyme preparations.
Subject to all appointments of the attending physician, after a couple of weeks, Giardia will leave the human body completely.
Garlic and horseradish
It will take 1 head of peeled garlic and 25 g of horseradish. Grate the ingredients and pour 0.5 liters of vodka or diluted alcohol. Leave to infuse for 10 days in a dark place. After the time has elapsed, drain the prepared medicine and take 1 tbsp. l before every meal.
It will take 1 tsp. rowan, which should be filled with 1 cup of boiling water. Leave to infuse for 2 hours. The received means to use 3 times a day on 50 ml.
For the preparation of this drug will take 2 tbsp. l finely chopped birch leaves, which should be poured 0.5 liters of boiling water. Put to boil for 10 minutes. At the end of time add 0.5 tsp. soda, mix and strain. The resulting decoction to take 1 glass daily.
Important to remember! Before using prescriptions for alternative medicine is required to consult with your doctor! He will assess the feasibility of their use, as well as the effectiveness of such treatment, taking into account the individual characteristics of the course of the disease. Also, during the period of receiving the decoctions, it is required to regularly test for the presence of Giardia in the body.
Treatment regimens for giardiasis
Treatment regimens for giardiasis are implemented by taking antiparasitic drugs, including:
Tinidazole (Tinogin, Ametin, Fazizin). Take the selected drug will take 1-2 days. The effectiveness of treatment reaches 80%.
Tiberal (Ornidazole). The drug can be taken on different schemes: one day, three days, five days and ten days. The effect, even with a daily intake reaches 92%.
Drug Makmioror "Poli industria chimica". The effectiveness of this drug reaches 96.8% after a week of intake.
After the end of treatment, you will need to conduct a control study for giardiasis. Once again, a parasitological examination is carried out after 30 days.
What doctor treats giardiasis?
The treatment of giardiasis is dealt with by an infectious disease doctor.
Education: in 2008, received a diploma in “General Medicine” (Therapeutic and Prophylactic) ”in the Russian Research Medical University named after NI Pirogov. Immediately passed internship and received a diploma of therapist.
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Giardiasis refers to parasitic infections. Its pathogen is a parasite of the genus flagellates from the family of protozoa. Giardia infestation is often found in children with low immune status, starting from the age of the newborn, as well as in adults. The parasite carries out its livelihoods mainly in the small intestine.
Any signs of the presence of giardiasis in the body (cysts, antigens to them in the patient’s feces, vegetative forms) are indications for initiating therapy for this disease. It begins even in the absence of negative symptoms. Treatment of giardiasis is carried out only by a specialist, since the drugs used are high.
Many people are sure that if at least once an infection with Giardia has occurred, then it is almost impossible to get rid of them later. However, doctors say that it is necessary to treat giardiasis, and the effect of competent therapy will not take long. There are drugs that quickly rid the human body of these parasites.