8 month

9 month of pregnancy, if you count on the lunar calendar, in which 28 days, it is 33, 34, 35, 36 obstetric weeks. Before meeting with the little is not a lot of time. Some women give birth to babies in this month. This is still premature, but with medical care, all healthy babies survive and develop without any significant pathologies.

What does mom feel in the ninth month?

1. Fatigue. I want to give birth as soon as possible, despite the fear of the birth itself (most mommies). The last months, which, by the way, are already on maternity leave, should be devoted to your beloved one. You need to find yourself some kind of hobby or self-education - you have a lot of free time, use it. When a child is born, you will devote all yourselves to him.

One important point - if severe fatigue is combined with tachycardia even at rest, this may indicate the presence of iron deficiency anemia. Donate blood to hemoglobin. Its level should not be less than 110. Otherwise, you need to take an iron supplement. Many women refuse it because such drugs provoke constipation (and pregnant women often have problems with a chair), but you shouldn’t do that. Remember that iron deficiency threatens fetal hypoxia and is deadly during childbirth, both natural and operational. Acceptance of iron supplements continued for several months. The dosage is determined by the doctor.

2. Frequent uterine tone or preparatory contractions. By the end of this month, all progesterone drugs are usually already canceled for the prevention of preterm labor. These drugs removed the hypertonus of mummies. So, after the end of their reception, the tension in the uterus, its stoning, will be felt much more often.

Also, periodic hypertonicity of the uterus, usually in response to any physical activity, is called preparatory contractions or Braxton Higgs contractions. They do not lead to the opening of the cervix and the beginning of labor. Although unpleasant, but not painful and not amplified, like real labor.

3. Pressure in the crotch area. Sometimes the discomfort associated with pelvic presentation of the fetus, which may try to pull the legs (if they are preloaded). But more often this is due to the low position of the baby’s head. This happens closer to childbirth. If the doctor on inspection notes with manual examination of the stationary head of the fetus - it may make sense to look at the ultrasound the length of the cervix. If it is greatly shortened, inpatient treatment and observation are necessary.

What happens to a fetus at 33-36 gestational weeks

The baby becomes very strong and fattened. By the end of the ninth month, its weight is already 2.5-3 kg. Height 45 cm on average. Formed chubby cheeks. They are clearly visible with ultrasound in 3D. The relief of the face give sucking muscles. By the way, their baby develops even in utero. It can be seen as he sucks a finger. After birth, this habit persists in all babies. Only many of them are swaddled, therefore, it’s impossible to get a finger in your mouth. The sucking reflex in newborns is very strong. Dimples on shoulders and buttocks are visible.

At the end of the month, in the case of pelvic presentation of the fetus, some women will be discharged to hospital. This applies to women of different risk groups. If necessary, a cesarean section is made as close as possible to the expected date of birth, so that the child is as mature as possible for life outside the womb.

Earlier deliveries should be expected in multiple pregnancies. So, on the term of 36-37 weeks, many twins are born.

The head of the child has a round and oval shape when it is inside the mother. But after birth, the shape of the head is often irregular, pointed. This is a normal deformation resulting from natural childbirth. The bones of the skull are very soft, it is necessary to facilitate childbirth. But within a few days the head will become a regular shape again.

Changing the nature of the movements of the child. They do not become less, but they are different. Mommy notices how the baby presses its limbs into the uterus. Have you seen on the Internet a picture of a pregnant tummy with a child’s protruding foot? This is approximately what happens at this stage of pregnancy.

Anxiety in moms can cause the so-called hiccups in a child. Especially if it is long and frequent. In fact, the child does not hiccup in the literal sense of the word, but performs breathing exercises, trains before birth. The point is not that you ate fat. Do not worry! Doing an ultrasound or CTG is not worth it. Anxiety should cause no movement during several hours.

All organs and systems of the child’s body are almost ready for birth by the end of this month. And, most likely, with a gestational period of 36 weeks, the baby will be able to stay in the maternity hospital in a regular ward with his mother. That is, it does not need to nurse. As for healthy kids, without deviations.

Eighth month of pregnancy

8 month of pregnancy is the second week of the third trimester. Namely, 29, 30, 31 and 32 weeks. The beginning of the most difficult part of the path in the physical plane. But not for everyone. Some mommies say that they literally fluttered in the last trimester, feeling almost no physical inconvenience. But this, of course, a rarity.

What does mom feel when she is eight months pregnant?

1. Psychological condition.

There are many fears. They are especially strong in future mothers who like to communicate on the Internet and read the various communities of pregnant women on the web. Unconsciously, women begin to try on various unpleasant situations, other people's problems, and they suffer from it. Doctors are advised to try not to read and not to look at what causes negative emotions. Reading the medical literature and trying to make a diagnosis is also not worth it. Sometimes women find a symptom of some kind of pathology and are absolutely sure that they have it. In fact, it turns out to be a variant of the norm or an individual feature.

What else are future moms worried about? Primiparous think about whether they can become good mothers, and someone about their appearance - they can get back into shape after the birth, lose weight, whether there will be stretch marks. Childbirth is coming. This is also very scary. Although, according to statistics, most mothers with the approaching PDR, on the contrary, are less afraid and want to give birth quickly.

They are afraid if the stomach is too small, as it seems to them. It is hardly worth comparing yourself with other pregnant women at the same time. Theoretically, a small abdomen may indicate a delay in intrauterine development of the fetus, but more often it is an individual feature of a woman associated with a strong abdominal wall and high growth. The main thing is that the girth of the abdomen and the height of the bottom of the uterus grow stably. And the fact that the belly is visually small is not a problem.

But whatever anxiety may arise, mommies should remember that pregnancy is a very short time span. And after giving birth, they will be very bored and at the movements of the baby, and for the joy they felt, knowing that they would soon become a mother, and even visits to the antenatal clinic.

2. Physical features.

a) Condition of hair on the face and body. Usually, during pregnancy, the hair on the head grows well in women, it becomes thick and shiny. But on the face and body, on the contrary, almost cease to grow. Almost all future mothers, depilating hair over the upper lip, during pregnancy there is no need. All this is due to the hormone estrogen, which is produced in excess during pregnancy. After childbirth, its quantity decreases, and again there is a need to remove excess hair. As for the hair on the head, if their condition is poor, there is abundant loss, the problem is most likely iron deficiency.

b) Papillomas. These are benign neoplasms, which are whitish growths on the skin. Expectant mothers infected with some type of human papillomavirus appear in large numbers. And they infected almost the entire population of our planet. The abundant appearance of papillomas is associated with a depressed state of the immune system.

These tumors are absolutely not dangerous. But do not cauterize them, much less rip off. The latter will certainly lead to infection of the wound and will be the reason for treatment by the surgeon. After childbirth, during the first months, the papillomas themselves begin to shrink and fall off.

c) Spotting from the nipples. Quite an alarming symptom, forcing women to turn to oncologists. Theoretically, in the worst case scenario, this happens with malignant tumors. But by the time they start to bleed, they are already easy to feel in the mammary gland.

Outside of pregnancy, nipple blood can be a symptom of an intraductal papilloma. It is benign, but in 10% of cases it can become malignant.
But in pregnant women who have no previous problems with the breast, this is a variant of the norm. Trying to push on the nipples should not be. It only hurts.

d) Bleeding gums, nosebleeds. All these bleedings are associated with the dilution of the blood of expectant mothers. This is necessary so that the child gets enough nutrition.

What happens to the child for 29-32 weeks inclusively and what they look at the ultrasound

By the end of the eighth lunar month of pregnancy, the baby practically does not remain on the body of lanugo hairs. This is one of the signs of his good preparation for life outside the womb of the mother. But, of course, in 32 weeks born children are still premature and require a stay in the incubator. Although many already breathe on their own.

Appeared hairs on the head. Someone more and longer, someone less, it is individually. Hair color is also different. But as for the eyes, then it is the same for all newborns, some kind of dark gray, incomprehensible. And the iris is large. Eye color will change and become final closer to 6 months.
Almost all the kids by this time are already lying upside down. If pelvic presentation is determined, a woman is advised to perform special exercises in order to push the fetus to a coup.

At 32 weeks the weight of the fetus is about 2 kg. Baby is gaining weight very quickly. By the time of birth, he will weigh 1.5-2 times more than now. This does not apply to children from twins and triplets, since they have to share the resources of her mother's.

During ultrasound, the doctor pays special attention to the state of blood flow in the umbilical arteries. If it is disturbed, oxygen starvation of the fetus and developmental delay are possible. In this case, the woman is usually placed in a hospital for more in-depth examination and observation.

Also an unfavorable sign is considered premature maturation of the placenta. When she already has a third degree of maturity at the beginning of the third trimester of pregnancy, this may be a sign of premature birth in the near future or intrauterine growth retardation. But not always. The main thing that the state of the blood flow was normal.

How many months does the pregnancy last

Everyone, without exception, knows that pregnancy lasts 9 months, but when the expectant mother enters the antenatal clinic, she is surprised by the news - the full term of gestation is 40 weeks. Here there is no docking: 4 weeks is a month, which means that before the birth of the baby, not 9, but 10 whole months will pass. At this point, it is worth separating the concept of calendar months from obstetric:

  • in a calendar month, it is not exactly 4 weeks (28 days), but 30–31 days, and these 2-3 days just play a significant role, being exactly 9 months of pregnancy,
  • By obstetric standards, pregnancy lasts 10 months for 4 weeks or 28 days. Such a calculation is made for the lunar months, according to which it is considered to be the woman’s menstrual cycle (for most, it is 28 days).

According to statistics, in 8 women out of 10 the pregnancy lasts 38 weeks (266 days or 8.5 months) from the date of fertilization.

When the pregnancy begins

Even under the condition that the woman clearly knows the date of ovulation, and the day of conception, it is impossible to establish the exact time that the fetus will need for full development. The fact is that after the release of the ovary, the egg begins its movement through the fallopian tubes to the uterus, and it is impossible to reveal the moment when it will unite with the spermatozoon. For convenience, doctors calculate the term according to the obstetric technique - starting from the first day of the last menstrual period. The real age of the baby - fetal - will be on average 2 weeks less. Therefore, the first day of pregnancy according to the documents is the beginning of the last menstrual cycle.

Monthly pregnancy review

During pregnancy, a real miracle occurs - out of two cells of the parents with a half set of chromosomes, each forms a separate organism, a full-fledged person with all the anatomical features. The transformation of a zygote into a baby is a step-by-step process, and for each of the months of gestation one has to develop certain systems. The fetus during pregnancy goes through a lot of changes - from a zygote with a full set of chromosomes to a fully functioning organism.

Table: development of the baby and changes in the mother's body in each of the months of pregnancy

Month (calendar)Fetus size (at the end of the month)Fruit weightBaby developmentMom's well-beingSurveysMother's weight gainAbdominal circumference
1 (prefetal period)1.5–2 mm1-2 gThe moment of the appearance of the embryo is already 2 weeks of pregnancy, taking into account the obstetric period. The true (fetal) period will be 2 weeks less. On average, in the second week of the last menstrual period, ovulation occurs, and the egg leaves the fallopian tube, moving to the uterus, where it meets the spermatozoa. As a result of the merger, a zygote is formed - the first cell with a full chromosomal set, which begins to actively divide. By the end of the first obstetric month, implantation takes place - the embryo is inserted into the wall of the uterus and fixed in it for further development.At the end of the first obstetric month of pregnancy, the expected menstruation of a woman will not come. It is at this moment that the expectant mother learns about her position by doing a pregnancy test. Hormonal background begins to change, which can cause frequently changing states of joy, fear, and excitement. When the implantation of the embryo may cause minor bleeding - the so-called implant bleeding. It is harmless and occurs due to injury to the vessels in the uterine wall where the embryo is implanted.Pregnancy test and as a more accurate alternative to a blood test for the level of human chorionic gonadtropin (hCG).Missing.Does not change.
22.5–3 cm6 gThere is a bookmark of the limbs, they become visible. The baby begins to move, but for now it is too small for mom to feel it. Formed neck, bookmarks of the senses. For such a period is characterized by a large head size - about half of the entire embryo, and the brain no longer shines through the skin. The heart, the stomach, the liver and the intestines grow, the formation of the genital organs begins.The new mother starts serious hormonal transformations that cause toxicosis. Its severity may be different: from a slight malaise to constant nausea and vomiting, which requires hospitalization. Most women spend this month resting, as there is great fatigue and a desire to sleep. The volume of fluid in the body increases, which leads to increased urination.At the end of the second month, many mothers come to the first ultrasound scan where they can already hear the baby’s heartbeat at a frequency of 110–190 beats per minute.Missing. With a strong toxicosis possible weight loss.Does not change.
37–9 cm20 gThe brain is actively developing, the digestive system (by the end of the month, the intestine is already forming loops), the production of hormones by the adrenal glands begins. The fingers are lengthened and become noticeable, the bones harden, and the urine develops in the kidneys.Toxicosis of early pregnancy especially worries a woman just at 3 months, but by its end the condition will return to normal. There may be heartburn, bloating and a problem with the stool in the form of constipation, which usually indicates the need for moms to normalize the diet and establish a drinking regime.Registration in female consultation. General tests: blood, urine, test for HIV, syphilis, hepatitis, analysis for determining blood group and Rh factor. Screening first trimester. Implies ultrasound examination, which examines the structure of the face, the location and size of the internal organs of the baby, and biochemical analysis of blood to identify the risk of chromosomal abnormalities in the fetus.0.5–1 kgChanges are individual. In primiparous, because of the strong and not yet stretched muscles, the changes are almost imperceptible, and for multiparous, the stomach is usually slightly rounded.
415-17 cm120gThe face is formed in the baby, the formation of the muscular skeleton ends. The baby moves a lot, sucks his finger, and the functions of his internal organs are complicated and improved. Completes its formation of the placenta.The hormones secreted by the placenta greatly alleviate the condition of the woman. The second trimester is considered the simplest physically - the stomach is still quite small, and the state of health is good.Urinalysis in female consultation. A blood glucose tolerance test may be recommended.1–2,5 kgThe abdominal circumference increases slightly.
520–22 cm300 gThe hearing organs of the baby develop, and now he can hear sounds passing through his mother’s belly. The torso is actively growing and lengthening, and the head no longer seems so big. The secretion of the sebaceous glands of a special lubricant begins, which will cover the baby’s skin until birth. In the intestines of the child is already forming a chair - meconium.The second trimester is characterized by the appearance of perturbations, which mom can already feel. At first they are very weak, and they can be confused with the work of the intestines, but with an increase in intensity, they become understandable and regular. Mom may experience severe heartburn, as the uterus is already enlarged enough to press on the stomach. Small amounts of colostrum can be excreted from the breast.Second trimester screening. Implies ultrasound with a Doppler and a triple blood test to determine the level of three hormones: human chorionic gonadotropin, estyrene and alpha-fetoprotein. The test reveals the risk of chromosomal abnormalities.1–2,5 kg70–75 cm
630–33 cm700 gThe baby’s nails appear on the fingers, the body matures and the internal organs are adjusted to function. At this time, the child tries to smile and knows how to frown.Involuntary spasms of the lower extremities, hemorrhoids and varicose veins may be disturbing. The appearance of unpleasant symptoms should be a reason for seeking medical attention.Urinalysis in female consultation.1–2,5 kg75–80 cm
738–40 cm1.5 kgThe kid is actively gaining weight, his movements are clearly felt by the mother. The skin acquires a pink color, the respiratory system completes its formation, the genitals are already fully formed. The child has the whole range of feelings, nerve cells and the brain are actively functioning. The fetus takes a pose that will take in childbirth.Start the third trimester. The abdomen is already quite large, which adds fatigue and begins to create discomfort with breathing. Slump increases, pain in the back and lower back may appear. At this time you need to monitor the appearance of puffiness - this is the reason for going to the doctor.Urinalysis in female consultation.1–2,5 kg80–85 cm
846 cm2-3 kgThe growth rate of the fetus slows down, it becomes crowded in the amniotic sac. The lower limbs are actively growing, but only after the birth, the legs will become longer than the arms.The uterus is greatly enlarged, the fetus puts pressure on the internal organs, which causes heartburn, back pain, and frequent urination. Shortness of breath appears, as the baby does not allow you to completely straighten your lungs when inhaling. The chest swells, becomes sensitive.Repeated blood tests for HIV, syphilis and hepatitis.1.5 - 2 kg85–90 cm
9 (10 obstetric)50 cmabout 3 kgThe baby is fully ready to be born.Due to the fact that the baby is already preparing to be born, the stomach gradually goes down, and there comes relief with breathing. There may be slight pulling pains in the pubic area, training contractions in the form of irregular spasms.Urinalysis in female consultation.1 - 2 kg95–110 cm

Risks of miscarriage and premature birth

Pregnancy is an extremely delicate condition that requires good maternal health and caution during pregnancy. At each of the months there are certain dangers, up to 7 months they talk about the possibility of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage), and after - about the risks of premature birth. A variety of factors can have a negative impact:

  • socio-demographic reasons (early age, problems in family life, low standard of living, etc.),
  • infection,
  • severe stress
  • malformations of the uterus, gynecological diseases,
  • hormonal disorders, etc.

The risk of miscarriage in the first three months of pregnancy is 15–20%, and many women are faced with this sad event, even without knowing that they are pregnant. In 3 cases out of 4 this happens due to the presence of complex genetic abnormalities in the fetus. In the second trimester, that is, for 4–6 months of gestation, the probability of encountering spontaneous interruption is significantly reduced - up to 10%, with one fifth of cases due to defects and tumors in the uterus, and in 18% of situations miscarriage occurs due to problems with umbilical cord. In the 7th and 8th month of pregnancy there is a risk of premature birth. According to statistics from the World Health Organization, from 5 to 18% of children are born up to 37 weeks depending on the country.

Useful tips for future mothers

As soon as a woman learns about pregnancy, she should reconsider her lifestyle and, if necessary, correct it. Taking out and giving birth to a healthy baby, while remaining in good health, will help follow the advice of experts:

  • throughout the term of gestation, it is not necessary to lift weights (more than 3-5 kg) and to engage in heavy physical labor,
  • it is worth refusing alcohol and smoking,
  • it is important to protect yourself from unnecessary experiences,
  • It is forbidden to take any medications without the need and permission of the doctor,
  • It is recommended to maintain a reasonable activity - daily walk in the fresh air, attend swimming classes or yoga for pregnant women. Maintaining physical fitness is important for mom - it will help you feel better and easier to give birth, During pregnancy, you need to maintain moderate physical activity, and visiting yoga will be an excellent option.
  • food should be complete, to the forefront is not the amount of food, but its quality.

In the early stages, for 1–2 months, the future mother may be bothered by toxicosis. Lemon will help to cope with it - in order to reduce nausea, it can be cut and put near the bed or added to drinking water. Another option is to chew on a fresh mint leaf. It is better for a pregnant woman to relinquish her cooking duties, since saturated aromas will only aggravate the condition. In the first three months of pregnancy, all the organs of the baby are laid, so special attention should be paid to the diet - all nutrients should come from food, food should be safe and varied.

My pregnancy was generally easy, but in the second month in two weeks there were obvious problems with food — I didn’t want to eat anything, even the thought of food made me feel bad. Three dishes came to the rescue: meat solyanka with the obligatory addition of fresh lemon, okroshka on whey and salad from Chinese cabbage, tomatoes and crackers. And the desire to eat exactly this arose in turn, and I had almost the only meal for several days - for breakfast, lunch and dinner.

Within 4-6 months, attention should be paid to the ingestion of a sufficient amount of iron. In the diet must be present apples, buckwheat, sea fish, green leafy vegetables. Lack of this component causes anemia, which is one of the main risks of miscarriage in the later periods. After 7 months, it is already closely involved in preparing for childbirth, attending special classes for expectant mothers will not hurt. In order not to cause premature birth, it is necessary to maintain caution - to avoid physical exertion, to avoid severe fatigue and stress. In recent months, it is not recommended to lean on food and overeat - it will not benefit neither a woman nor a baby. The common opinion that a pregnant woman should eat for two is fundamentally wrong, the need for calories during gestation increases by only 500 per day, but not double.

Pregnancy is usually counted from the first day of the last menstrual period - this is called obstetric, and it is 40 weeks. The very same conception occurs during ovulation, so the real age of the baby is usually 2 weeks less than the doctor’s consultation with a woman. Each of the months of fetal development is special and important, and the risk of abortion remains throughout the term.

Short announcement of 10 months of pregnancy

Pregnancy does not last 9 months, as most average people think, but 10 ... But not calendar days of 30-31 days, but lunar ones - 28 days each. On average, pregnancy lasts exactly 280 days. And each of the ten months carries something very important. The information below, given in the form of a short monthly calendar, will be very useful to all expectant mothers without exception!

The first month of pregnancy is 1-4 obstetric weeks inclusive. The monthly cycle of a woman in the middle of which the conception of a child occurs. But Mom does not yet know about such a significant event. The earliest when you can learn about pregnancy is 5-6 days before the delay of menstruation. While in the uterus is a tiny fertilized egg, which is not visible on the ultrasound.

The 2nd month of pregnancy, 5-8 weeks, is notable for the appearance of its signs. In future moms, there is a delayed menstruation, toxemia, hyper-tiredness and drowsiness, breast tenderness, and frequent urination appear. Some women also complain of lower abdominal pain and a slight increase in body temperature. This is a normal variant, if the pain is not frequent and not severe, the temperature is not higher than 37.5 degrees and easily decreases without antipyretic agents in the absence of any painful symptoms.
At 5 weeks, an ultrasound shows a fertilized egg. At 6 weeks - an embryo in it. And at 7 weeks already and his heartbeat is easily determined by ultrasound. This month is critical for the baby. If something goes wrong, a spontaneous miscarriage will occur.

In the third month, that is, at 9-12 weeks, some moms notice an increase in the abdomen. Is the baby growing so fast? By no means. This visual deception is caused by increased gas formation and relaxation of the abdominal wall due to the action of the hormone progesterone. All signs of pregnancy remain. Toxicosis is still valid. But by the end of this month, the fetus (the child is already called that way) is almost completely formed, although it is still tiny in size. By the time of the first planned screening, at 12 weeks, 5-6 cm in length.

Next month of pregnancy, 13-16 weeks, for future moms one of the most comfortable. Manifestations of toxicosis disappear, there is a surge of strength. In the case of heterogeneous women, the tummy begins to grow in reality (these are no longer gases), and some of them even feel the first tentative movements of babies. By the way, those by the end of the fourth month weigh about 80 grams. Their size can be compared with avocados.

The 5th month of pregnancy begins on the 17th week and ends on the 20th. Mommies are buying clothes for pregnant women, since they no longer fit into a normal tummy. Yes, and the weight is added, the clothes become small. In the first half of pregnancy, they recover by an average of 4-5 kilograms. Women who suffer from severe toxemia can gain less, and some even lose weight.
By the 20th week of pregnancy, almost all moms hear the stirring of their babies and ... even see. At this time, a second planned ultrasound is performed to exclude fetal malformations and isthmic-cervical (cervical) insufficiency (the most common cause of miscarriages over long periods and preterm labor).

The sixth month of pregnancy falls at 21-24 weeks. By the end of this period, the weight of the babies can reach 600 grams, plus water, the placenta, fat deposits on the stomach, and this results in a solid load on the lower back. Feel discomfort? It's time to wear a bandage. Consult with your doctor about this.

The next month of pregnancy is interesting because the children born during this period, that is, at 25-28 weeks, the doctors are obliged to save and nurse. These are deeply premature babies who need to develop for a long time in special conditions and rehabilitate themselves. But some of them grow quite healthy kids. It is your task to carefully monitor your well-being and immediately inform the doctor about the indisposition, if it is. Dangerous symptom - pain in the uterus, cramping pain. This happens when the threat of preterm birth.

The eighth month of gestation, 29-32 week - this is the time of rest for mom. At 30 weeks moms go on maternity leave. Their tummies are already clearly visible to others. Kids grow quickly and actively move. By the way, the movements are easily determined and dads, if they put mom's hand on his stomach.
Fetal weight is determined on the third scheduled ultrasound at 32 weeks. And it is equal to an average of 2 kg. By the time of birth can double.

In the ninth month, a woman feels a full set of ailments - this is heartburn, and back pain, and insomnia, and cramps in her legs at night. Well, you need to be patient, not much left. 33-36 weeks - a time when mommy especially needs the support of loved ones. If the dowry for a child has not yet been bought, it's time to do it. Next month he will most likely be born!

Finally, the tenth gestation month. 37-40th obstetric week. Each woman, observed by the doctor, put the estimated date of delivery. But it rarely coincides with the true. Births begin when the child is fully matured. Someone is 38 weeks deadline, and someone has 40 or even 41 weeks. The last days of pregnancy are left. Enjoy your position, shoot yourself in the photo and video. There will be something to remember later!

Watch the video: Developmental Stages for Baby: 8-10 months - Eastern Idaho Regional Medical Center (October 2019).


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